- 来源:建筑创作 smarty:if $article.tag?>
- 关键字:建筑,哲学,风格 smarty:/if?>
- 发布时间:2013-08-22 14:23
The Space-Time Continuum Interpretation of Symbiosis of “Structuralism” and “Deconstruction”： The Analysis of “Tectonic Syntax” in Richard Meier‘s Works
关键词：理查德·迈耶 建构句法 建构哲学 结构和解构 共生
Abstract： Towards analyzing the Modernist architecture in the post-industrial era， this paper emphatically introduces the works of American architect Richard Meier and makes a concrete study on the tectonic philosophy in his work through the concept of tectonic syntax so as to uncover his symbiotic philosophies of Structuralism and Deconstruction， which constitute the internal logic in his architectural style.
Keywords： Richard Meier Tectonic Syntax Tectonic Philosophy Structuralism and Deconstruction Symbiosis
The architecture of the 20th century has been presented with many diverse developments. From the late western classical architectural forms of Neoclassicism and Eclecticism to Art Nouveau， Expressionism， De Stijl， Constructivism， and other thoughts nurtured in the aesthetics’ circles， eventually emerged Modernism， the architectural style flourishing in the industrial era of machine primacy. With the coming of the post-industrial era， architects began to resent the dogmatic program of the Modernist Architectural Style：“Form Follows Function” and “Decoration is Evil” turned out the stereotyped “machine” phenomenon in the urban. They quoted new theories of philosophy，linguistics and sociology to relentlessly criticize the Modernist architectural style， whose aim is to seek for new theories to break down the limitations and imprisonment of Modernism in architectural creation； consequently， Postmodernism and Deconstructivism are their typical representatives.
Richard Meier lived in times of differing opinions on the Modernist architectural style. By combining Modernism‘s “structuralism” thought which emphasized on function and ration in architecture with Deconstructivist thought which paid attention to “diversification， dissociation and disruption” in the architectural “prototype”， he created a new style of Modernism called “the Whites.” His tectonic philosophy has the multiple interpretability of “structuralism” and “deconstruction”. On the basis of Structuralist ideologies， the paper analyzes the implicit phenomenon of symbiosis of the ideologies of “Structuralism” and “Deconstruction” in his tectonic philosophy by putting forward the concept of “tectonic syntax” which classify the inherent logic in the process of tectonics， thereby enabling understanding of the internal logic in his architectural style.
TECTONIC SYNTAX DIFFERENTIATION
“建构”（tectonic）一词源自于希腊文，意为木匠或建造者。在古希腊的荷马史诗中，该词被用来指一般意义上的建造技艺。到了公元前5世纪，该词不仅涵盖了物质意义上的木工技艺，也包含着诗性的美学制作过程。阿道夫·海因里希·玻拜恩（Adolf Heinrich Borbein）在1982年的一篇哲学论文中论述“建构是连接的艺术，这里所谓的艺术应该理解为一种涵盖面十分广阔的技艺。建构不仅意味着建筑部件的组合，而且也意味着物体的组合？？”
“Tectonic” is a word derived from the Greek， meaning carpenter or builder. In the ancient Greece of Homer’s Epic， the word was used to refer to the general sense of the construction feat. Up to the 5th century BC， the word covered not only the physical sense of carpentry skills， but also the poetics of the aesthetic creative process. Adolf Heinrich Borbein discussed this word in a philosophical paper in 1982， in which he said， “Tectonic becomes the art of joinings， ‘art’ here is understood as encompassing ‘tekne’ and therefore indicates tectonic as assemblage not only of buildings but also of objects， indeed of artworks in a narrower sense.”
“Tectonic” emphasizes the properties of a building‘s material construction， not only containing the material properties， but also showing the structural logic of architecture from the inside out， and it is an architectural and cultural artistic expression as well as a composition of the external environment for culture and life. Therefore， the architectural style formed from “tectonic” gives the expression to “tectonic” philosophy； as Kenneth Frampton said，“Tectonic is the poetics of construction.”
The word， “Syntax”， came from the American Structuralist linguist Noam Chomsky’s book， Syntax Structure， in which he said language systems have two structural levels： “surface” and “deep”. The surface is the formal structure of the sentence， namely： grammar， while deep structure is the ability of thinking creating grammatical structure， namely： syntax. Semantics transforms through the deep structure to surface structure， therefore there exist different languages which， although having different surface grammatical structures， retain the same the underlying syntactic structures. “Syntax”， as an ideological structure of linguistics， can be drawn as an analogy to architecture by showing that the generation of architectural forms also has “surface” and “deep” structures. The surface structures are the associations of “form-function-culture” in which constitute the architectural forms， while the deep structures are logical relationships between individual abstract components existing in architecture.
“Tectonic”， as a systematic construction process， reflects the inner structure and morphology in architectural style. In order to clearly study the tectonic philosophy in Richard Meier‘s architectural works， this paper quotes the “Syntax” theory of linguistics to analyze the generative mechanism in his tectonic process， namely： Tectonic Syntax.
“Tectonic Syntax” is a systematic structural system which contains a number of interconnected “meta-structures”. French sociologist Charles Rolla， based on structuralism， put forward theories on the structural systems of industrial products， namely： functional structure， material structure， organic structure， morphology structure， environmental structure， which constitute the “super-structure” in the aesthetics of industrial products. Architecture， as the representative of industrial products， has the same hierarchy， and “Tectonic Syntax”， being the deep structure of architectural morphology in which the surface structure is abandoned (functional structure)， is made up of four structures： the “plane meta-structure” and “ morphological meta-structure，” consisting of the pure geometric relationships between the “point， line， plane”， the “skin meta-structure” formed of materials and textures in building elevation， and the “environmental meta-structure” consisting of the single building as well as the overall environment.
THE SELF-EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURE “PROTOTYPE”
Since 1960s， the western architectural industry prompted a series of self-conscious， self-critical movements in review of the architectural discipline， profoundly reconsidering architecture influenced by Functionalism and Social Determinism. Architects began to discuss the architectural “prototype” in terms of inherent composition as well as rules of morphological evolution. . The architectural “prototype” embodies the “innate collective unconscious” in architectural form， which has an a priori innate quality， functioning in the formation of certain morphology pre-existent in the architect’s mode of thought. To combine in the architectural “prototype” the philosophies of Structuralism and Deconstruction have become new strategies and formal tactics in architectural creation.
Structural evolution on the basis of Structuralist philosophy， linguistics， sociology， pays attention on the structural linkages between the various components of architecture. its essence can be divided into two aspects： first， the structure itself has integrity as a self-sufficient whole， and constituent elements are closely connected with each other， while the structural units themselves each have independent significance； second， the structure is hierarchical， in which the superior structure is made up of the subordinate structures. As the architect Aldo Van Eyck said in the conference of the “Group of Ten”： “The city is a big building， while a building is a small city.”  Therefore， there are “inter-structural” relationships between the architecture and environment as well as the internal structural units in the architecture itself， and it is “symbiosis” that constitutes the networks between the living environment and the urban structure.
Deconstructive evolution is based on the theory of Deconstruction created by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. He believed in the emergence of new structure and new matters beyond one‘s own thought patterns， therefore emphasizing the ambiguity of each design work. Architectural creations are diverse and the cognitive style of each architect is personalized as well. Thus， only by negating the dogmatism of Structuralism can architects be faced with innovations. Deconstructive evolution deconstructs the centrality of structural systems in architecture and makes the existing structures turn into the “complementary structure” through the methods of dissociation， disruption， destabilization， etc. The tectonic is built upon the dynamic transitions between the positive and negative attitudes on structural systems.
“TECTONIC SYNTAX” IN RICHARD MEIER’S WORKS
The tectonic process in Richard Meier‘s works is not just imitation of historic architectural “prototypes” to seek for the essence of architecture， but to absorb the eternal and logical factors of culture actively to， purify it in order to reproduce the continuity and permanence of time in architectural works. In order to analyze the basic rules and logic connotations of architecture creation， the architecture could be divided into the following four meta-structures through the Structuralist ideology of “tectonic syntax”.
Plane meta-structure is made up of the abstract elements， “point， line and plane”， Richard Meier usually created tectonic works on the basis of abstract geometric figures to shape the complex plane through the methods of disruption， dissociation and dislocation.
General Layout - “Changing between Circle and Rectangular”
The circle and rectangle are the basic visual structural elements in Richard Meier’s plan tectonic work. Usually， the circular plan and the rectangular intersected with each other so that the former figure was the node or junction point of latter figure， serving to deconstruct the architectural “prototype”. The introduction of the circle plan not only made the architectural plan variable in the vertical direction， but also reduced the conflicts between rectangular plan and environment as well as enriched the visual perceptions near the building combinations.
In his work， the Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building， Richard Meier deconstructed and dissociated the base plan made of a circle and square. Morphological variation begins from the main structure of circle and square in an organic tectonic process， by dissociating and dislocating each shape as well as adding used open space and spatial connections into it， ultimately resulting in a complex plan form (Figure 1).
Each Plans - “Superimposition” Phenomenon
The tectonic process on each of the plans in Richard Meier‘s works absorbed the concept of “Superimposition” in the painting of “Synthetic Cubism” in the Fine Arts， which focused on grafting characteristics on various heterogeneous elements that made the relationships between each plan become indistinct. On the consistency of architectural structure in overall plans， this method inevitably enhanced the deconstruction of each plan. Richard Meier also attached importance to the “vertical design” of each plan， making the different functional plans superimposed. Unlike the standard plan in modern architecture， this method could help to contain more various functions and events in the whole architecture.
In the Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building， each plan is structured rationally， and the non-rational deconstructive effect was created by Richard Meier by superimposing each plan， creating a rich visiting experience in the interior space. In order to establish a connection between the architecture and environment， the floorage of ground plan shrunken so as to create more and more gray space which could be better for enhancing the visitors’ sense of belonging. The changes between each plans were conducted floor by floor， adding more ambiguous space into it. This pattern of development was the reflection of fractal geometry in the ideology of deconstruction， focusing on the dynamic relationships between each “self-similar” graphic (Figure 2).
Morphological meta-structure forms the complex shape of Richard Meier‘s architectural style， which could be divided into external structure and inner structure.
External Morphology - Deconstructing in Different Layer
Richard Meier made each of the geometric form intersect with each other to create the expressive multilayer space in his architecture. To investigate the external morphology in Richard Meier’s architecture through the theory of Structuralism， it is clear that deconstruction and dispersion in different kinds of geometric forms can be found in the architecture， namely “Deconstructing in Different Layers”. This kind of philosophical tectonic process led to the complex external morphology in his architectural systems， and in order to seek for diversified architectural forms， Richard Meier superimposed and decomposed the architectural “prototype” by utilizing flat， curved， double curved， etc. surfaces. Each layer was a fragment of the overall systems， which created the architecture morphology that each structure is “self-similar”， whereas the integral architectural morphology was well arranged.
For the logical tectonic process of external morphology in his work， Church of the Year 2000， Richard Meier used three parallel hemispheres， whose radii were the same as the dominant morphology， to “superimpose” and divide the whole building‘s structure of layers， to combine with multiple cuboids to shape the church’s “prototype” morphology. Then， the hemisphere “deconstructed” and formed three hyperboloids whose radians between each hyperboloids was an arithmetic progression from the inside to the outside (the common difference of each radians is 10 ？). The three hyperboloids presented “topological”laws， which enhanced dynamics and hierarchy in the new architectural morphology by disrupting the center morphology of the three original spheres. Arranging the church‘s nave into it so as to break the old fashioned the church’s nave was “axial symmetry” in the architecture， Richard Meier deconstructed the antagonistic relations of“form-function” in his architecture. Three hyperboloids intersected with three one-fourth spheres whose radians were slightly smaller than the former， shaping the fantastic glass ceiling. The external light， reflected from an outdoor curved surface， penetrated through the glass ceiling， and radiated on the arc wall inside presenting a “topological” image. On the opposite side of the three hyperboloids， Richard Meier designed a hyperboloid whose radius was larger than the three hyperboloids in front to enclose the space， which not only formed the “self-similarity” between the different structural components in the church‘s external morphological system， but also eased the hardened psychological feelings that intersection between the cubes and hyperboloids generated. Richard Meier combined a “prototype structure” with a “complementary structure” (created by deconstructing the prototype structure)， retaining the tangential and intersecting shape， making the external morphology of his architectural works more and more obscure and abstract (Figure 3).
Internal Morphology - The Separation of Structure
The internal morphology of Richard Meier’s works are free from the structure systems， and the spatial morphology often appeared to be “duplicity”. The separation between architecture structure systems with the spatial maintenance systems not only released the internal space， but also created the new possibility for further “deconstruction and dissociation”.
By means of “three-dimensional cutting”， the vertical spaces between each floors in Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building avoided interleaving with structure systems. In this way， the vertical flow of space was created， and the deconstruction of the common mode of construction： “structure - space” created the alternative space for this building. Internal morphology was limited by a series of “scattered， crisscross， discontinuous” wall panels， and these walls followed the principle of fractal geometry which formed the “positive” and “negative” shape so as to form the holes of internal space whose sizes were different. All these holes had relationships with the extension of construction and presented the integrity of the internal space (Figure 4).
The skin meta-structure is the texture of the building envelope， which constitutes people‘s cognition of a building’s external structure. Sometimes， it makes a deviation between cognitive form and the actual form， and under certain circumstances， the cognitive form is different from the latter. Richard Meier‘s works often taken into account impact of this kind， and he was good at using abstract collage techniques to deconstruct the morphology of a building’s skin. Therefore， he created the special structures of building skins which could be variously interpreted through different means. Richard Meier‘s tectonic philosophy of skin meta-structure can be divided into two kinds： fractal and constructing.
For building skin， Richard Meier preferred to use glass and white square metal or ceramic panel of identical size appearance， maintaining the presentation and integrity of a grid system. He always paid attention to the Deconstruction theory and used fractal geometry to classify grid structures resulting in the look of “self-similarity” so as to form multiple skins in a grid structure to seek visual diversity in his works.
In the design of Westchester House， Richard Meier applied 0.45m X 0.45m metal panels as well as casement windows whose sizes were identical to the metal panels as the basic skin structures applied to large areas on the surface of the building. Additionally， he broke it down into two sets of grid systems： 0.9mX0.9m and 0.15mX0.3m. One was used in the public space on the ground floor， the other was used in vertical traffic space， and they formed differences. It was due to construction under a unified mathematical module that they presented the obvious “self-similarity” and formed the complex fractal phenomena of order and chaos (Figure 5).
Rationality of Structures
When designing large public buildings， Richard Meier’s tectonic syntax on skin meta-structure embodied the rationality of structures， and he emphasized the complex relationship between different functions. Based on the construction of some parts of the building， Richard Meier increased the complexity of the textures in the building skin so as to weaken the monotone order of the single material over a large area.
In the design process of United States Courthouse and Federal Building， Richard Meier applied window shades on the building elevation， and made the outer morphology diverse， the linear grids of floor structures superimposed with shutter grids， which made the skin‘s structural grids varied. The underlying surface was given priority with glass grids， and the grids were simplified forms compared with the window shades. With the superimposition with multiple skin textures， it was the rational relationship between each layer of skin presented on the building elevation which eased the uncomfortable feeling of a large building (Figure 6).
The environmental meta-structure reflects the relationship between tectonic process and the surrounding environment.
In the phase of site analysis， Richard Meier actively absorbed the theory of Structuralist philosopher Gianni Vattiomo， “Undesirability”， to pay attention to the connection between site， plan and the surrounding environment： neither completely resisting nor succumbing to the existing environment， but maintaining a symbiosis with the environment. It can be regarded this method was a further development of the theory of Organic Architecture proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright， which emphasized the logical construction of environmental structure， and the circulation between the buildings and their surrounding environment.
In the site plan design of Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building， Richard Meier superimposed three structures to create a weak structure link： a 3mX3m model grid structure extracting from the surrounding church， the texture of grid structure collected on the nearby residential roofs and the visual control grid structure. Therefore， the environmental elements of different sources were dissolved and merged into one， which not only contributed to a constructive connection with the surroundings in architectural figure-ground relationships， but also led to the integration of building functions， contexts， etc. (Figure 7) In the site plan design of the Getty Center， Richard Meier superimposed two sets of grid structures to ease the hardened psychological feelings that single grid structures generate， and the single building therefore remained consistent. As a result， the conflict between each single architectural form and the whole environment was reduced and the whole building was presented in a consistent and harmonious form (Figure 8).
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF “TECTONIC SYNTAX”
As is presented in the analysis， Richard Meier’s philosophy of tectonic is a product neither of scheduled reduction nor thoroughly beaten separation of all single architectural morphologies， but from a symbiotic deductive process which involves structuralism and deconstruction under a composite structure of thinking. The Dynamic Tectonic Modes link and transform in dual dimensions of time and space. The generation of each architectural work has its intricate inner structural systems. Accompanied by the digestion of the architectural morphology within each structure‘s layers， the original architecture was replaced with open architecture. The prototype of tectonic laid a foundation for further deconstruction， which， at the same time， comprehended each complementary structure and the prototype. This process is time-consuming but also simultaneous. That is to say， in a specified period， Richard Meier’s structuralism and deconstruction are best balanced by the tectonic system， then this transformative process is resultant in an everlasting nature. It is this uniqueness of Richard Meier‘s tectonic philosophy that makes his works more subtle， and more worthy of being multi-analyzed.
Thanks to his inheritance and development thoughts， Richard Meier is pushing forward the history of modern architecture. In the diverse developing architecture field， he breaks down the boundaries constituted by the humbled Modernism as well as the vulgar Historicism. He creates a unique architectural theory combined with new philosophy. As a systematic tectonic philosophy， the symbiosis of Structuralism and Deconstruction meets the need of the time. It can adjust to the complicated real world and environment through self-development which， furthermore， avoids the limitation of a single model of architecture creation. In these current complex times， it possesses an enlightening quality.
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