“结构”与“解构”的时空共生演绎

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑,哲学,风格
  • 发布时间:2013-08-22 14:23

  迈耶作品的“建构句法”分析

  The Space-Time Continuum Interpretation of Symbiosis of “Structuralism” and “Deconstruction”: The Analysis of “Tectonic Syntax” in Richard Meier‘s Works

  摘要:对后工业时代现代主义建筑作简要分析,选择美国建筑师迈耶进行介绍,引入建构句法概念分析他作品中的建构哲学,进而发现结构和解构思想共生的哲学思维形态,构成了其建筑风格的内在生成逻辑。

  关键词:理查德·迈耶 建构句法 建构哲学 结构和解构 共生

  Abstract: Towards analyzing the Modernist architecture in the post-industrial era, this paper emphatically introduces the works of American architect Richard Meier and makes a concrete study on the tectonic philosophy in his work through the concept of tectonic syntax so as to uncover his symbiotic philosophies of Structuralism and Deconstruction, which constitute the internal logic in his architectural style.

  Keywords: Richard Meier Tectonic Syntax Tectonic Philosophy Structuralism and Deconstruction Symbiosis

  中图分类号:TU- 80

  文献标识码:A

  文章编号:1004-8537(2013)0708-0046-09

  20世纪建筑界呈现多元发展的态势,经历了西方古典建筑形式末期的新古典主义、折中主义的洗礼,也经历了美学界新艺术运动、表现主义、风格派、构成主义等思想的熏陶,最终现代主义建筑风格横空出世,在“机器”为主导的工业时代蓬勃发展。而随着后工业时代的到来,建筑师开始对现代主义“形式服从功能”、“装饰即是罪恶”的教条纲领进而建构千篇一律的“机器”现象产生反感,引用哲学、语言学和社会学出现的新理论对现代主义建筑毫不留情的批判,力求挣束缚和禁锢以寻觅出新的建筑创作思想,后现代主义和解构主义就是典型的代表。

  The architecture of the 20th century has been presented with many diverse developments. From the late western classical architectural forms of Neoclassicism and Eclecticism to Art Nouveau, Expressionism, De Stijl, Constructivism, and other thoughts nurtured in the aesthetics’ circles, eventually emerged Modernism, the architectural style flourishing in the industrial era of machine primacy. With the coming of the post-industrial era, architects began to resent the dogmatic program of the Modernist Architectural Style:“Form Follows Function” and “Decoration is Evil” turned out the stereotyped “machine” phenomenon in the urban. They quoted new theories of philosophy,linguistics and sociology to relentlessly criticize the Modernist architectural style, whose aim is to seek for new theories to break down the limitations and imprisonment of Modernism in architectural creation; consequently, Postmodernism and Deconstructivism are their typical representatives.

  理查德·迈耶生活在现代主义褒贬不一的时代,其创作思想融合了现代主义风格注重功能和理性的“结构”思想,也吸纳了解构主义理论注重形态“多元化、分离、破碎”的思想,创作出了以“白色派”自居的新现代主义风格,建构哲学具备“结构”和“解构”的多重解读性。以结构主义思想体系为基准,引入“建构句法”概念对建构过程的内在逻辑分类,进而分析建构哲学深层结构中存在的“结构”和“解构”并存现象,以体会其作品风格的生成机制和内在逻辑。

  Richard Meier lived in times of differing opinions on the Modernist architectural style. By combining Modernism‘s “structuralism” thought which emphasized on function and ration in architecture with Deconstructivist thought which paid attention to “diversification, dissociation and disruption” in the architectural “prototype”, he created a new style of Modernism called “the Whites.” His tectonic philosophy has the multiple interpretability of “structuralism” and “deconstruction”. On the basis of Structuralist ideologies, the paper analyzes the implicit phenomenon of symbiosis of the ideologies of “Structuralism” and “Deconstruction” in his tectonic philosophy by putting forward the concept of “tectonic syntax” which classify the inherent logic in the process of tectonics, thereby enabling understanding of the internal logic in his architectural style.

  建构句法辨析

  TECTONIC SYNTAX DIFFERENTIATION

  建构

  Tectonic

  “建构”(tectonic)一词源自于希腊文,意为木匠或建造者。在古希腊的荷马史诗中,该词被用来指一般意义上的建造技艺。到了公元前5世纪,该词不仅涵盖了物质意义上的木工技艺,也包含着诗性的美学制作过程。阿道夫·海因里希·玻拜恩(Adolf Heinrich Borbein)在1982年的一篇哲学论文中论述“建构是连接的艺术,这里所谓的艺术应该理解为一种涵盖面十分广阔的技艺。建构不仅意味着建筑部件的组合,而且也意味着物体的组合??”

  “Tectonic” is a word derived from the Greek, meaning carpenter or builder. In the ancient Greece of Homer’s Epic, the word was used to refer to the general sense of the construction feat. Up to the 5th century BC, the word covered not only the physical sense of carpentry skills, but also the poetics of the aesthetic creative process. Adolf Heinrich Borbein discussed this word in a philosophical paper in 1982, in which he said, “Tectonic becomes the art of joinings, ‘art’ here is understood as encompassing ‘tekne’ and therefore indicates tectonic as assemblage not only of buildings but also of objects, indeed of artworks in a narrower sense.”

  “建构”强调建筑的物质属性,不仅要包含材料的特性,也显现形体自内而外的结构逻辑性,其表达建筑文化艺术的同时,也构成了文化和生活的外在环境。因此,在“建构”中形成的建筑风格是“建构”哲学及“建构”技术的外在体现,正如弗兰姆普顿所言:“建构即诗意地建造”。

  “Tectonic” emphasizes the properties of a building‘s material construction, not only containing the material properties, but also showing the structural logic of architecture from the inside out, and it is an architectural and cultural artistic expression as well as a composition of the external environment for culture and life. Therefore, the architectural style formed from “tectonic” gives the expression to “tectonic” philosophy; as Kenneth Frampton said,“Tectonic is the poetics of construction.”

  句法学

  Syntax

  “句法学”来源于美国结构主义语言学家诺姆·乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的著作《句法结构》,他认为语言系统具有“表层”和“深层”两个结构层次,表层为句子的形式结构,即:语法,深层结构是创造语法结构的思维能力,即:句法。语义通过深层结构向表层结构转换,因此,不同语言虽存在着各异的表层语法结构,其深层句法结构却是一致的。“句法学”作为语言学的结构思想体系,将其类比建筑学可知,建筑形态的生成也具有“表层”和“深层”两个结构,表层即是建筑“形式-功能-文化”含义的形态关联,深层则是建筑各抽象结构之间的逻辑关系。

  The word, “Syntax”, came from the American Structuralist linguist Noam Chomsky’s book, Syntax Structure, in which he said language systems have two structural levels: “surface” and “deep”. The surface is the formal structure of the sentence, namely: grammar, while deep structure is the ability of thinking creating grammatical structure, namely: syntax. Semantics transforms through the deep structure to surface structure, therefore there exist different languages which, although having different surface grammatical structures, retain the same the underlying syntactic structures. “Syntax”, as an ideological structure of linguistics, can be drawn as an analogy to architecture by showing that the generation of architectural forms also has “surface” and “deep” structures. The surface structures are the associations of “form-function-culture” in which constitute the architectural forms, while the deep structures are logical relationships between individual abstract components existing in architecture.

  建构句法

  Tectonic Syntax

  “建构”作为系统性建造过程,其反应了建筑风格的内在结构形态。从语言学的角度引入“句法学”理论剖析“建构”过程的生成机制,以便更清晰地研究迈耶建筑作品的建构哲学,即:建构句法。

  “Tectonic”, as a systematic construction process, reflects the inner structure and morphology in architectural style. In order to clearly study the tectonic philosophy in Richard Meier‘s architectural works, this paper quotes the “Syntax” theory of linguistics to analyze the generative mechanism in his tectonic process, namely: Tectonic Syntax.

  “建构句法”是系统化的结构体系,其包含了多个互相联系的“元结构”。法国社会学家查理斯·罗拉基于结构主义理论提出了工业产品的形态结构体系,即:功能结构、材料结构、有机结构、形式结构、环境结构,他们共同组成了工业产品美学的“超结构”。建筑作为工业产品的代表其具备相同的结构层次,而“建构句法”是建筑形态的深层结构,其摒弃了表层的形态关联,即:功能结构,进而由“点、线、面”纯几何关系组成的建筑“平面元结构”和“形态元结构”,以及由立面材质、肌理组成的“表皮元结构”和由建筑单体和整体环境组成的“环境元结构”构成。

  “Tectonic Syntax” is a systematic structural system which contains a number of interconnected “meta-structures”. French sociologist Charles Rolla, based on structuralism, put forward theories on the structural systems of industrial products, namely: functional structure, material structure, organic structure, morphology structure, environmental structure, which constitute the “super-structure” in the aesthetics of industrial products. Architecture, as the representative of industrial products, has the same hierarchy, and “Tectonic Syntax”, being the deep structure of architectural morphology in which the surface structure is abandoned (functional structure), is made up of four structures: the “plane meta-structure” and “ morphological meta-structure,” consisting of the pure geometric relationships between the “point, line, plane”, the “skin meta-structure” formed of materials and textures in building elevation, and the “environmental meta-structure” consisting of the single building as well as the overall environment.

  “原型”形态的自我演变

  THE SELF-EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURE “PROTOTYPE”

  20世纪60年代起,西方建筑界掀起了一场对建筑学科自律问题的反思,以辩证的态度思考功能主义和社会需求决定论影响下的建筑学。建筑师开始讨论建筑“原型”内在结构以及自身形态的演变规则。“原型”体现了建筑形态“集体无意识的先天倾向”,具有先验性色彩,预先存在于建筑师的思维模式中,将建筑“原型”结合结构和解构思想哲学进行推导、变异,成为了建筑创作理论和形式操作的新策略。

  Since 1960s, the western architectural industry prompted a series of self-conscious, self-critical movements in review of the architectural discipline, profoundly reconsidering architecture influenced by Functionalism and Social Determinism. Architects began to discuss the architectural “prototype” in terms of inherent composition as well as rules of morphological evolution. . The architectural “prototype” embodies the “innate collective unconscious” in architectural form, which has an a priori innate quality, functioning in the formation of certain morphology pre-existent in the architect’s mode of thought. To combine in the architectural “prototype” the philosophies of Structuralism and Deconstruction have become new strategies and formal tactics in architectural creation.

  结构性演变

  Structural Evolution

  结构性演变以结构主义哲学、语言学、社会学为理论基础,其关注建筑各要素间的结构联系,其本质具有两个属性:一、结构本身是自足的系统性整体,各组成要素之间呈现结构化构成关系,其重要性大于各要素的独立意义;二、结构具有层级性,上级结构由下级结构的组成关系构成。正如建筑师阿尔多·范·艾克在“十人组”会议上指出:“城市是一座大建筑,建筑是一座小城市”。因此,建筑与环境、建筑内部形态之间是“互构”的,其“共生性”构成了生活环境和城市结构网络。

  Structural evolution on the basis of Structuralist philosophy, linguistics, sociology, pays attention on the structural linkages between the various components of architecture. its essence can be divided into two aspects: first, the structure itself has integrity as a self-sufficient whole, and constituent elements are closely connected with each other, while the structural units themselves each have independent significance; second, the structure is hierarchical, in which the superior structure is made up of the subordinate structures. As the architect Aldo Van Eyck said in the conference of the “Group of Ten”: “The city is a big building, while a building is a small city.” [3] Therefore, there are “inter-structural” relationships between the architecture and environment as well as the internal structural units in the architecture itself, and it is “symbiosis” that constitutes the networks between the living environment and the urban structure.

  解构性演变

  Deconstructing Evolution

  解构性演变以法国哲学家雅克·德里达的解构主义思想体系为基础,他认为新事物、新结构的生成,是人思维模式之外的,强调设计答案的多义性。建筑创作的可能性是多样化的,建筑师的认知方式也是个性化的,因此,只有不断否定教条主义的结构化才能创新。其消解了建筑结构系统的中心性,通过分离、开裂、瓦解、错位、分散等模式对现有结构解构成“互补结构”,建构建立在对各结构系统肯定和否定的动态转变中。

  Deconstructive evolution is based on the theory of Deconstruction created by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. He believed in the emergence of new structure and new matters beyond one‘s own thought patterns, therefore emphasizing the ambiguity of each design work. Architectural creations are diverse and the cognitive style of each architect is personalized as well. Thus, only by negating the dogmatism of Structuralism can architects be faced with innovations. Deconstructive evolution deconstructs the centrality of structural systems in architecture and makes the existing structures turn into the “complementary structure” through the methods of dissociation, disruption, destabilization, etc. The tectonic is built upon the dynamic transitions between the positive and negative attitudes on structural systems.

  迈耶作品的“建构句法”

  “TECTONIC SYNTAX” IN RICHARD MEIER’S WORKS

  迈耶的建构过程并不是通过对历史建筑“原型”的模仿和类比寻求对建筑内涵的解读,而是积极吸取文化中时代性和逻辑性的因素,将其形象纯粹化,以抽象几何的形态再现了建筑作品时间维度上的连续性和永恒性。以结构主义思想“建构句法”剖析建筑,分为如下四类元结构,从而分析其建筑形态生成的基本规律和逻辑内涵。

  The tectonic process in Richard Meier‘s works is not just imitation of historic architectural “prototypes” to seek for the essence of architecture, but to absorb the eternal and logical factors of culture actively to, purify it in order to reproduce the continuity and permanence of time in architectural works. In order to analyze the basic rules and logic connotations of architecture creation, the architecture could be divided into the following four meta-structures through the Structuralist ideology of “tectonic syntax”.

  平面元结构

  Plane Meta-Structure

  平面元结构由抽象元素“点、线、面”构成,迈耶常以抽象几何图形为基本构成元素进行逻辑建构,通过形体的消解、错位、分离进而形成了复杂平面。

  Plane meta-structure is made up of the abstract elements, “point, line and plane”, Richard Meier usually created tectonic works on the basis of abstract geometric figures to shape the complex plane through the methods of disruption, dissociation and dislocation.

  平面布局-“圆方之变”

  General Layout - “Changing between Circle and Rectangular”

  圆形和方形是迈耶平面建构的基本结构图形,二者形体穿插,圆形平面成为方形平面的节点或交接点,解构了机械化的建筑“原型”。引入的圆形平面在垂直方向上拓展了空间的变化形式,也消减了方形平面边角对环境的冲突,丰富了靠近建筑群落时的视觉感受。

  The circle and rectangle are the basic visual structural elements in Richard Meier’s plan tectonic work. Usually, the circular plan and the rectangular intersected with each other so that the former figure was the node or junction point of latter figure, serving to deconstruct the architectural “prototype”. The introduction of the circle plan not only made the architectural plan variable in the vertical direction, but also reduced the conflicts between rectangular plan and environment as well as enriched the visual perceptions near the building combinations.

  在乌尔姆展览厅及会议厅中,迈耶的圆和方基本平面相互解构、分离。形态变异由圆形和方形的主体结构开始,接着将形体穿插、消减并将使用空间和交通空间进行有机建构,最终形成复杂平面形态(图1)。

  In his work, the Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building, Richard Meier deconstructed and dissociated the base plan made of a circle and square. Morphological variation begins from the main structure of circle and square in an organic tectonic process, by dissociating and dislocating each shape as well as adding used open space and spatial connections into it, ultimately resulting in a complex plan form (Figure 1).

  各层平面-“叠置”现象

  Each Plans - “Superimposition” Phenomenon

  迈耶的平面建构吸取了美术学中“合成立体派”绘画的“叠置”概念,注重各类异质元素的嫁接性,形成了错落化的立体平面形态,进而模糊了各层平面之间的图底关系,在总体平面结构一致性的同时,增强了各层平面的解构性。他注重各层平面的“垂直性设计”,将充满差异性的不同功能平面重叠,不同于现代建筑标准分层的单一体验,进而有助于容纳更多的差异性计划和事件。

  The tectonic process on each of the plans in Richard Meier‘s works absorbed the concept of “Superimposition” in the painting of “Synthetic Cubism” in the Fine Arts, which focused on grafting characteristics on various heterogeneous elements that made the relationships between each plan become indistinct. On the consistency of architectural structure in overall plans, this method inevitably enhanced the deconstruction of each plan. Richard Meier also attached importance to the “vertical design” of each plan, making the different functional plans superimposed. Unlike the standard plan in modern architecture, this method could help to contain more various functions and events in the whole architecture.

  乌尔姆展览厅及会议厅的各层平面建构都是结构性的理性操作,迈耶把各层空间叠合时,就产生了非理性的解构效果,创作出丰富的内部空间体验。底层空间为取得与周边地块的结构性联系,采用灰空间,注重空间围合感。在逐层变形中,迈耶的各楼板层形态都是都呈现渐变性,增强了多义性空间。这种演变规律体现了解构主义思想体系下的分形几何学,注重“自相似”图形之间的动态联系和局部差异(图2)。

  In the Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building, each plan is structured rationally, and the non-rational deconstructive effect was created by Richard Meier by superimposing each plan, creating a rich visiting experience in the interior space. In order to establish a connection between the architecture and environment, the floorage of ground plan shrunken so as to create more and more gray space which could be better for enhancing the visitors’ sense of belonging. The changes between each plans were conducted floor by floor, adding more ambiguous space into it. This pattern of development was the reflection of fractal geometry in the ideology of deconstruction, focusing on the dynamic relationships between each “self-similar” graphic (Figure 2).

  形态元结构

  Morphology Meta-Structure

  形态元结构塑造了迈耶建筑的复杂形态, 分为外部形态和内部形态。

  Morphological meta-structure forms the complex shape of Richard Meier‘s architectural style, which could be divided into external structure and inner structure.

  外部形态-分层次解构

  External Morphology - Deconstructing in Different Layer

  迈耶运用不同几何形体间的互构性创作了建筑多层次的几何空间,富有表现力。以结构主义思想将迈耶建筑外部形态分层解读,可见其各层次之间具有形态的消解和分离特性,即层次解构性。这种哲学建构模式导致了建筑系统复杂的外部形态,迈耶善用平面、曲面、双曲面进行建构叠加、分解,进而形成层次多变的建筑形态,各层次是基于整体结构形态下的分形几何,塑造了局部“自相似”而整体层次分明的复杂建筑形态。

  Richard Meier made each of the geometric form intersect with each other to create the expressive multilayer space in his architecture. To investigate the external morphology in Richard Meier’s architecture through the theory of Structuralism, it is clear that deconstruction and dispersion in different kinds of geometric forms can be found in the architecture, namely “Deconstructing in Different Layers”. This kind of philosophical tectonic process led to the complex external morphology in his architectural systems, and in order to seek for diversified architectural forms, Richard Meier superimposed and decomposed the architectural “prototype” by utilizing flat, curved, double curved, etc. surfaces. Each layer was a fragment of the overall systems, which created the architecture morphology that each structure is “self-similar”, whereas the integral architectural morphology was well arranged.

  在千禧教堂的外部形态逻辑建构中,迈耶将半径相同的三个并列半球体“叠置”作为主导形态划分建筑整体结构层次,结合多个长方体塑造了教堂的基本“原型”形态。接着,将半球体“解构、分形”,形成了由里到外以弧度为10?进行等差递减的三个双曲面,三个曲面呈现“拓扑”规律,消解了原球体形态的中心性,增强了动态性和层次性。在其中布置教堂的中殿,打破了原有中殿“中轴对称式”的结构定律,也是对建筑“形态--功能”对立关系的解构。三个双曲面与比其弧度略小的3/4球体相交,塑造了教堂内部的采光天棚。由外部的曲面形体反射出的光线,经玻璃顶棚穿透室内在弧墙上呈现产生“拓扑化”的光影体验。在三个双曲面的对侧,迈耶用了更大半径的双曲面跟其共同围合教堂中殿空间,这形成了教堂外部形态不同构件系统中的“自相似性”,也缓解了外部形态过多直线线条与双曲面产生的刚硬感受,丰富了视觉形态。通过对基本几何图形的解构,迈耶创作出基于“原始结构”图形中的“互补结构”进行融合,保留了相切、穿插的抽象形体,使其作品外部形态具有隐晦性和多重解读性(图3)。

  For the logical tectonic process of external morphology in his work, Church of the Year 2000, Richard Meier used three parallel hemispheres, whose radii were the same as the dominant morphology, to “superimpose” and divide the whole building‘s structure of layers, to combine with multiple cuboids to shape the church’s “prototype” morphology. Then, the hemisphere “deconstructed” and formed three hyperboloids whose radians between each hyperboloids was an arithmetic progression from the inside to the outside (the common difference of each radians is 10 ?). The three hyperboloids presented “topological”laws, which enhanced dynamics and hierarchy in the new architectural morphology by disrupting the center morphology of the three original spheres. Arranging the church‘s nave into it so as to break the old fashioned the church’s nave was “axial symmetry” in the architecture, Richard Meier deconstructed the antagonistic relations of“form-function” in his architecture. Three hyperboloids intersected with three one-fourth spheres whose radians were slightly smaller than the former, shaping the fantastic glass ceiling. The external light, reflected from an outdoor curved surface, penetrated through the glass ceiling, and radiated on the arc wall inside presenting a “topological” image. On the opposite side of the three hyperboloids, Richard Meier designed a hyperboloid whose radius was larger than the three hyperboloids in front to enclose the space, which not only formed the “self-similarity” between the different structural components in the church‘s external morphological system, but also eased the hardened psychological feelings that intersection between the cubes and hyperboloids generated. Richard Meier combined a “prototype structure” with a “complementary structure” (created by deconstructing the prototype structure), retaining the tangential and intersecting shape, making the external morphology of his architectural works more and more obscure and abstract (Figure 3).

  内部形态-结构的分离

  Internal Morphology - The Separation of Structure

  迈耶作品的内部形态建构句法不受结构系统的禁锢,常呈现“表里不一”的空间形态。建筑结构系统和空间维护系统的分离,释放了内部空间自由度,也为其“解构和分离”创造可能。

  The internal morphology of Richard Meier’s works are free from the structure systems, and the spatial morphology often appeared to be “duplicity”. The separation between architecture structure systems with the spatial maintenance systems not only released the internal space, but also created the new possibility for further “deconstruction and dissociation”.

  乌尔姆展览厅及会议厅的垂直楼层间部分通过“立体切割”的方式避开与结构的穿插关系,进而形成了垂直向的空间流动,这种对“结构--空间”这一普遍建构模式的解构,创造了丰富的室内空间。内部形态的由一系列“断裂的、交错的、不连续的”墙板限定,其规律遵循分形几何原理,形成“正形状”和“负形状”,由此组成了内部空间中大小不一的孔洞,与建筑的外延不断取得结构联系,使内部形态整体呈统一性(图4)。

  By means of “three-dimensional cutting”, the vertical spaces between each floors in Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building avoided interleaving with structure systems. In this way, the vertical flow of space was created, and the deconstruction of the common mode of construction: “structure - space” created the alternative space for this building. Internal morphology was limited by a series of “scattered, crisscross, discontinuous” wall panels, and these walls followed the principle of fractal geometry which formed the “positive” and “negative” shape so as to form the holes of internal space whose sizes were different. All these holes had relationships with the extension of construction and presented the integrity of the internal space (Figure 4).

  表皮元结构

  Skin Meta-Structure

  表皮元结构是建筑外围护结构的表层肌理,其构成了人对建筑外部形态的认知结构,这会在不同空间和环境的影响下和其实际形态构成偏差。迈耶的表皮建构综合考虑了这类影响,运用抽象拼贴的手法将单一表皮形态解构化,进而建构了具有时空多重解读性的表皮结构。其建构哲学思维分两种:分形和结构化。

  The skin meta-structure is the texture of the building envelope, which constitutes people‘s cognition of a building’s external structure. Sometimes, it makes a deviation between cognitive form and the actual form, and under certain circumstances, the cognitive form is different from the latter. Richard Meier‘s works often taken into account impact of this kind, and he was good at using abstract collage techniques to deconstruct the morphology of a building’s skin. Therefore, he created the special structures of building skins which could be variously interpreted through different means. Richard Meier‘s tectonic philosophy of skin meta-structure can be divided into two kinds: fractal and constructing.

  分形

  The fractal

  迈耶使用的建筑表皮多数为玻璃和白色的正方形金属或陶瓷面板,进而形成尺寸相同的结构网格,具有突出的整体结构性。他注重在单一表皮结构下的解构思维,运用分形几何学对构造网格进行“自相似”划分,进而形成了多个表皮网格层次,寻求其作品的视觉多样性。

  For building skin, Richard Meier preferred to use glass and white square metal or ceramic panel of identical size appearance, maintaining the presentation and integrity of a grid system. He always paid attention to the Deconstruction theory and used fractal geometry to classify grid structures resulting in the look of “self-similarity” so as to form multiple skins in a grid structure to seek visual diversity in his works.

  在Westchester House设计中,迈耶利用0.45m见方的金属面板和尺寸相同的玻璃窗作为基本表皮结构应用在大面积区域,接着,迈耶将其分解转换成0.9m见方和0.15mX0.3m两套网格体系,分别运用在位于底层公共性较强的空间和边侧竖向交通空间,形成局部差异化,由于各表皮仍建构在统一的数学模数下,因此呈现明显“自相似性”,形成了复杂的有序和无序的分形现象(图5)。

  In the design of Westchester House, Richard Meier applied 0.45m X 0.45m metal panels as well as casement windows whose sizes were identical to the metal panels as the basic skin structures applied to large areas on the surface of the building. Additionally, he broke it down into two sets of grid systems: 0.9mX0.9m and 0.15mX0.3m. One was used in the public space on the ground floor, the other was used in vertical traffic space, and they formed differences. It was due to construction under a unified mathematical module that they presented the obvious “self-similarity” and formed the complex fractal phenomena of order and chaos (Figure 5).

  结构理性

  Rationality of Structures

  在设计大型公共建筑时,表皮建构句法体现了结构理性观念--注重功能之间的复杂关联。通过对部分构建结构化,增强其肌理的复杂性,进而弱化了单一构件在大面积区域的单调秩序。

  When designing large public buildings, Richard Meier’s tectonic syntax on skin meta-structure embodied the rationality of structures, and he emphasized the complex relationship between different functions. Based on the construction of some parts of the building, Richard Meier increased the complexity of the textures in the building skin so as to weaken the monotone order of the single material over a large area.

  在美国联邦国家法院设计中,迈耶在建筑大面积外墙中引入遮阳百叶,使其形态呈现丰富的结构性,楼板线状网格与百叶的结构网格“叠置”,增强了表皮结构层次。底层表皮以玻璃网格为主,其网格形式是对百叶窗结构的简化处理,二层表皮呈现复合化,在玻璃的外围建构了粗壮的骨架结构。将多个表皮肌理叠置,各层表皮之间呈现出的结构理性联系,消解了大型建筑体量的突兀感(图6)。

  In the design process of United States Courthouse and Federal Building, Richard Meier applied window shades on the building elevation, and made the outer morphology diverse, the linear grids of floor structures superimposed with shutter grids, which made the skin‘s structural grids varied. The underlying surface was given priority with glass grids, and the grids were simplified forms compared with the window shades. With the superimposition with multiple skin textures, it was the rational relationship between each layer of skin presented on the building elevation which eased the uncomfortable feeling of a large building (Figure 6).

  环境元结构

  Environmental Meta-Structure

  环境元结构体现了建构过程对周围环境、文脉的关联。

  The environmental meta-structure reflects the relationship between tectonic process and the surrounding environment.

  “弱结构”

  Weak Structure

  迈耶在场地分析阶段,积极吸取结构主义哲学家奇亚尼·法提莫(Gianni Vattiomo)的“不可判定性”的思想,注重平面和周围环境之间的“弱结构”联系性,即不完全抵抗也不完全屈服于现有的环境中,而跟环境保持着共生联系。这也是对赖特有机建筑理论的发展,强调富有逻辑地建构环境结构,在建筑与其周围环境之间创造了联系性的循环。

  In the phase of site analysis, Richard Meier actively absorbed the theory of Structuralist philosopher Gianni Vattiomo, “Undesirability”, to pay attention to the connection between site, plan and the surrounding environment: neither completely resisting nor succumbing to the existing environment, but maintaining a symbiosis with the environment. It can be regarded this method was a further development of the theory of Organic Architecture proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright, which emphasized the logical construction of environmental structure, and the circulation between the buildings and their surrounding environment.

  在乌尔姆展览馆及会议厅基地平面设计中,他提取了周边教堂的3mX3m模式网格和附近传统住宅屋顶的网格肌理构建“弱结构”联系,结合地块视觉控制线综合叠置,各类环境因素得到消解和融合,不仅在建筑的图底关系上对周围环境产生结构联系,也是对建筑功能、文脉、意义的多种融合(图7)。在盖蒂中心中,建筑采用两套轴网的“叠置”,弱化了单一几何轴网的强硬感受,在图底关系上取得与周边环境的“弱结构”联系,各建筑单体形态结构保持一致性,进一步弱化了单个建筑形体对环境的冲突,建筑整体呈现协调一致的有机形态(图8)。

  In the site plan design of Ulm Exhibition and Assembly Building, Richard Meier superimposed three structures to create a weak structure link: a 3mX3m model grid structure extracting from the surrounding church, the texture of grid structure collected on the nearby residential roofs and the visual control grid structure. Therefore, the environmental elements of different sources were dissolved and merged into one, which not only contributed to a constructive connection with the surroundings in architectural figure-ground relationships, but also led to the integration of building functions, contexts, etc. (Figure 7) In the site plan design of the Getty Center, Richard Meier superimposed two sets of grid structures to ease the hardened psychological feelings that single grid structures generate, and the single building therefore remained consistent. As a result, the conflict between each single architectural form and the whole environment was reduced and the whole building was presented in a consistent and harmonious form (Figure 8).

  “建构句法”的哲学辨析

  PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF “TECTONIC SYNTAX”

  由分析可见,迈耶的建构句法哲学并不是对单一形态的预定、还原或彻底打散、分离的产物,而是建立在复合思维结构下结构与解构的共生演绎过程,这种动态建构模式在时间和空间双维度上相互联系和转化,每个建筑作品的生成都有内在错综的结构体系,而各层结构中也伴随着对形态的消解过程,使其更替变换为开放结构体系,建构的“原型结构”为进一步解构提供了基础,而解构的同时也综合了“原型结构”各“互补结构”之间的结构联系,这种过程经历着“历时性”和“共时性”双重作用,当在某一固定时间段内,迈耶的结构与解构思想得到建构系统的最优化平衡,其共生转化过程将永久性结束,进而形成最终方案,这种特殊的建构哲学思维也使迈耶作品的含义更加隐晦,具有突出的多重解读性。

  As is presented in the analysis, Richard Meier’s philosophy of tectonic is a product neither of scheduled reduction nor thoroughly beaten separation of all single architectural morphologies, but from a symbiotic deductive process which involves structuralism and deconstruction under a composite structure of thinking. The Dynamic Tectonic Modes link and transform in dual dimensions of time and space. The generation of each architectural work has its intricate inner structural systems. Accompanied by the digestion of the architectural morphology within each structure‘s layers, the original architecture was replaced with open architecture. The prototype of tectonic laid a foundation for further deconstruction, which, at the same time, comprehended each complementary structure and the prototype. This process is time-consuming but also simultaneous. That is to say, in a specified period, Richard Meier’s structuralism and deconstruction are best balanced by the tectonic system, then this transformative process is resultant in an everlasting nature. It is this uniqueness of Richard Meier‘s tectonic philosophy that makes his works more subtle, and more worthy of being multi-analyzed.

  迈耶以“继承和发展”的辩证思路延续了现代主义建筑的历史,在建筑界呈现多元发展的今天,他突破了粗陋的现代主义和庸俗的历史主义极端,成功吸纳了哲学新思想进而生成自己独特的建筑创作方法论。这种结构和解构的共生作为系统建构哲学,能够应运时代的流行模式发展,通过自我形态演变适应复杂的现实生活和环境要求,进而规避了单一建筑创作模式的局限性,在世界多元复杂化的时代,具有突出的启示性。

  Thanks to his inheritance and development thoughts, Richard Meier is pushing forward the history of modern architecture. In the diverse developing architecture field, he breaks down the boundaries constituted by the humbled Modernism as well as the vulgar Historicism. He creates a unique architectural theory combined with new philosophy. As a systematic tectonic philosophy, the symbiosis of Structuralism and Deconstruction meets the need of the time. It can adjust to the complicated real world and environment through self-development which, furthermore, avoids the limitation of a single model of architecture creation. In these current complex times, it possesses an enlightening quality.

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  李昕阳 洪再生 Li Xinyang,Hong Zaisheng

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