秩序的生成与变异:迈耶建筑作品中网格体系解析

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:秩序,生成,变异
  • 发布时间:2013-08-22 14:27

  Spatial Order: Generation and Variation - Analysis of the Grid System in Richard Meier‘s Works

  摘要:理查德·迈耶是现代建筑晚期,美国“纽约五人组”的代表人物。在诸多经典的迈耶作品中,方形网格都成为设计的重要母题,方形网格也因此被称作“迈耶词汇”。本文从形态构成角度,将迈耶对方形网格体系运用归纳为重复、穿插、旋转和层叠四种设计手法。结合典型建筑案例,分析了设计手法对于建筑空间秩序生成和变异所起到的作用。

  关键词:理查德·迈耶,秩序,生成,变异

  Abstract: Richard Meier was one of the key figures of “New York Five” group during the development of late Modernist architecture. The Square grid, which has been called the “Meier vocabulary”, is an important design motif typical of Meier’s works. Focusing on its formal configuration, this paper summarizes four kinds of design methods using the square grids system: repetition, intersection, rotation and superimposition. Through case studies, the paper presents how each of these four methods can affect the Generation and Variation of the spatial order.

  Keywords: Richard Meier, spatial order, generation, variation

  中图分类号:TU- 80

  文献标识码:A

  文章编号:1004-8537(2013)0708-0055-05

  理查德·迈耶(Richard Meier)作为现代建筑晚期,美国“纽约五人组”的代表人物,创作出大量经典的现代建筑作品。迈耶的设计作品深受柯布西耶立体主义的影响,体量的对比和穿插是最为典型的建筑设计手法,在方方正正的长方形体量上穿插了圆柱形,半圆柱形等异形体量,形成鲜明的体量对比和灵活的组合关系。但令人赞叹的是,在迈耶作品中不同形态几何体量组织在一起,并不显得混乱和冲突,其间似乎蕴含着某种力量,赋予了作品稳定的空间秩序。

  何谓建筑空间秩序?空间秩序即是指建筑形式生成的逻辑性。建筑师在构思建筑作品时,总是会受到某种秩序和逻辑规则的导引。任何具有复杂表象的建筑,其生成过程一定遵循着某种规律。空间秩序的存在使复杂的建筑形式成为统一的整体。但建筑设计理念中的秩序和规则是无形的,需要有形的媒介来表达。网格体系作为一种清晰而有形的媒介,对建筑形式逻辑的生成有着不可忽视的作用,也成为很多建筑师毕生的追求。

  网格体系的缘起可追溯到古典建筑时期。在古典建筑时期,以毕达哥拉斯为代表的毕达哥拉斯学派确立了欧几里德几何在哲学和美学上的重要地位,认为“美是数和数的和谐”,确立了对称、比例、尺度、和谐、秩序等基本审美原则。古典建筑的形态表现为简洁的几何形式,但对于比例和尺度的追求可谓达到极致。从金字塔的黄金分割到罗马的柱式系统,从文艺复兴的几何构图到法国古典主义的“三段式”,古典建筑体现出严谨的秩序之美。维特鲁维在《建筑十书》中,提出了“方形人”的概念,并给“方形人”加上了网格,这成为用网格表达比例体系的起源。

  随着工业革命和资本主义时代到来,建筑逐步以科学理性主义取代了前工业时代的精神性。简洁的建筑形式纯净的建筑立面成为建筑主要特点。欧几里德几何中的笛卡尔坐标体系和模数理论成为现代建筑形态生成的重要基石。网格体系作为由这两个重要理论发展而来的有形媒介,在现代建筑的设计中得到更为充分发挥。从结构主义网格衍生到解构主义网格碎裂,扭转、叠加,从高技派的网格表皮到新陈代谢理论的立体网格体系,可以说在现代建筑的各个风格流派中,我们都可以寻觅到网格体系的影子。

  在现代主义建筑大师中,勒·柯布西耶和理查德·迈耶是网格体系构成手法的代表人物。柯布西耶于1914年就构建了“多米诺系统”(Domino),用钢筋混凝土柱承重体系取代了承重墙结构。框架结构解放了建筑平面空间,形成自由化的平面布局。迈耶继承了柯布西耶立体主义的风格,但并不是完全模仿柯布西耶式的立体主义,其作品有着更为丰富的建筑语汇。特别是在网格体系上,他创造性地设计出许多富于想象力和复杂多变的网格组织形式。迈耶对方形网格体系有着特殊的喜爱,在诸多的经典作品中方形网格都成为设计的重要母题,方形网格也因此被称作“迈耶词汇”。迈耶对于方形网格的把握和运用可谓是炉火纯青。从形态构成角度来分析,迈耶对方形网格体系运用大体可归纳为重复、穿插、旋转和层叠四种设计手法。

  Richard Meier was one of the key figures of “New York Five” group in the development of late Modernist architecture. He has created a large number of outstanding works of Modernist architecture. Meier‘s designs have been influenced by Le Corbusier’s Cubism. Intersection and collision of different volumes are his typical design methods. For example, a rectangular volume is intercepted by a cylindrical, semi-cylindrical volume, which forms the contrast and flexible spatial relationships. Surprisingly, the spatial configuration of distinctive volumes does not give us a feeling of chaos. Rather, they produce a dynamic stability and delicate tension with an underlying yet overwhelming power.

  What is spatial order in architecture? Spatial order could be defined as the generative logic of architecture forms. When architects develop a design concept, their thinking is often guided by certain logics or rules. As a result of this approach, the generation process of any building with a complex formal composition should have underlying simple rules. The diverse volumes could be integrated into a unified entity based on this spatial order. However, these orders and rules are invisible, and their presence needs to be demonstrated by certain media. The grid system is one such clear and tangible media, which has an important role on the presentation of architecture formal logic. Many famous architects have achieved outstanding designs based on the grid system.

  The origin of the grid system can be traced back to the classical period. In the period of classical architecture, Pythagoreans, following the teachings of Pythagoras, believed that Euclidean geometry had an important role in philosophy and aesthetics: “Beauty comes from the harmony between numbers”. Pythagoreans also established basic aesthetic principles, including symmetry, proportion, scale, harmony, order, and so on. The classical architectures have simple geometric forms, but their ways of using scale became their dominant aesthetic achievement.

  From the Egyptian pyramids, Roman order system, the geometric composition of the Renaissance and French classical architecture, the beauty of classical architecture reflects spatial order pursuing accuracy. The book, “The Ten Books of Architecture, “written by Vitruvius, recorded a “square human” diagram with a square grid. It is the origin of the relationship between the human scale and the grid system.

  With the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism, design ideology gradually changed from the spirituality of the pre-industrial era towards scientific rationalism. Simple architectural forms and pure architectural facades without decoration became primary features. Descartes‘ coordinate system and modulus theory of Euclidean geometry became an important formal language in Modernist architectural theory. The grid system as a tangible media, generated from mathematical theories, has been widely used in Modernist architectural design. From the regular grid derived from Structuralism to the grid crushing, twisting and superimposition derived from Deconstructionism, from the grid fa?ade in High-Tech architecture to the three-dimensional grid system in Metabolism, the use of a grid system is ubiquitous.

  Among the famous architects of Modernist architecture, Le Corbusier and Richard Meier are the representatives in the use of a grid system. In 1914, Le Corbusier established the “domino system”. The load-bearing structure changed from walls to concrete columns in the “domino System”, which leads to the concept of the free plan.

  Meier inherited Corbusier’s Cubism without completely imitating his predecessor. Meier‘s work has a richer architectural vocabulary. Especially in his use of grids, he creatively designed many imaginative and complex grid systems. Meier has a special fondness for the square grid system. It has become an important design concept in many of his masterworks, and has been called the “Meier vocabulary”. Meier’s understanding and application of the square grid reaches an outstanding degree. Focusing on the formal configuration of his works, the paper summarizes four kinds of design methods on using the square grids system: repetition, intersection, rotation and superimposition.

  网格重复

  GRID REPETITION

  网格体系是从正方形、矩形、三角形或多边形等基本网格单元重复组合而来的,因而重复性是网格体系的基本特征。迈耶作品中,网格体系重复性主要体现在建筑表皮均质的,单元化的网格控制。表皮材料大多为正方形金属面板或是陶瓷面板。模数化面板的尺寸大体一致,在建筑表皮形成正方形网格体系。连续性的表面网格的处理减弱了建筑的沉重感,增加了建筑的尺度感,形成理性的空间秩序。迈耶还常常使用玻璃网格来表现建筑,在他的作品中玻璃常常是透明无色的。通过大面积的玻璃,可以看到建筑内部层次和构件,玻璃网格和内部空间网格相互作用和影响,以表现出空间的复杂性与灵活性。

  拉乔夫斯基住宅(Rachofsky House)是一个清晰简洁的几何分割体,具有荷兰风格派和柯布西耶立体主义构图和光影变化,强调面的穿插,讲究纯净空间的建筑和体量。透过比例优雅的玻璃幕墙,清楚地显现出内部的景象,具有纵深感的空间网格与白色实墙的平面网格肌理巧妙地交替呼应,形成韵律感和节奏感(图1)。

  A grid system is the combination of the basic geometric unit, such as square, rectangle, triangle or polygon. Therefore, repetition is the basic characteristic of the grid system. In Meier‘s works, repetition of the grid system is mainly reflected in the homogeneous and unified grid construction. The facade material chosen by him is mostly metal or ceramic panels with a square shape. Modular panels are of the same size, which formed a square grid system in the facade. Continuity of the surface mesh weakens a building’s heaviness and exaggerates its scale. All of these elements contribute to a rational spatial order. Meier also uses a glass grid system in his works. As a transparent and colorless element, large areas of glass allow us to observe the interior spaces and components. The interaction and tension between a glass grid and the interior spatial grid enhance the spatial complexity and flexibility.

  Rachofsky House has a clear and simple geometric volume. The work emphasizes on pierced surfaces and is attentive of pure spaces and volumes. The spatial composition and the use of light and shadow are similar to the De Stijl in the Netherlands and Le Corbusier‘s Cubism. The interior space can be seen clearly through the glass grid with an elegant scale. A sense of rhythm and intervals is formed by the grid system in the glass curtain and walls (Figure 1).

  网格穿插

  GRID INTERSECTION

  网格穿插是指将异型元素以嵌入的方式,组合在已有的网格体系中。插入体和基本网格布局可以相互对等,也可以主次分明。异型元素的插入给原本单一、规整和明晰的网格体系加入活跃的元素,使平静、均衡和稳定的平面形式变得灵动。巴塞罗那当代艺术博物馆(Museum of Contemporary Art in Barcelona)的主体是在规整的方形网格中穿插了圆柱形体,这是迈耶运用方形和圆形几何构图的惯用手法。圆形元素丰富了方形网格的组合形式,在体量之间产生强烈的对比。在建筑适当部位插入弧形墙体,也使空间具有更好的过渡性和融合性。建筑中的圆柱形体与主体建筑相互独立,从而产生形体上的层次变化,取得良好的虚实对比和光影效果(图2)。

  Grid intersection refers to a composition in which heterogeneous elements intersect the basic grid system and then combine into a new grid system. The inserted volume and the basic volume can have the equivalent or subordinate relationship. The heterogeneous element inserted into the basic grid system can make a calm, balanced and stable plan form become agile and dynamic. The primary massing of the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art is a regular grid system, interspersed with cylindrical masses. The composition of square and circle is Meier’s main design method. Circular elements can enrich the square grid system and produce a strong contrast between the different formal geometries. The curved wall inserted into the appropriate parts of the building allow better transition and integration. The main building and the cylindrical massing stand independent of each other, which create a diversification to achieve spatial contrast and lighting effects (Figure 2).

  网格旋转

  GRID ROTATION

  迈耶对网格旋转的设计手法可谓是情有独钟,从法兰克福装饰艺术博物馆到海牙市政厅和中心图书馆,从亚特兰大高级美术馆到盖蒂中心,到处可以看到旋转网格体系所带来的空间的丰富性和复杂性。在迈耶的作品中,网格旋转体系也可分为两种情况,一是两套轴线网格保持空间上的相互独立,并无叠合,这个手法的典型建筑案例是盖蒂中心(The Getty Center)。两个旋转的网格将场地地理特征与城市道路肌理联系起来。南北向轴网贯穿基地内的一条沟壑,主体建筑布局沿南北轴线展开。另一个轴网与城市中心的道路网格相关联,也成为控制另一组建筑群构成的基准网格(图3);二是两套轴线网格在建筑内部产生碰撞,相互重叠。重叠部分相对于原型网格会更加复杂,这部分往往是平面构成的重点。在法兰克福装饰艺术博物馆中(Museum for the Decorative Arts in Frankfurt),迈耶采用将轴线延长,并连接参照物的手法将两套轴线明确地表达出来,同时在铺地网格采用直截了当的碰撞,强烈暗示出两套轴线的存在(图4)。

  Meier has favor for the grid rotating system. From the his works, such as the Museum for Decorative Arts in Frankfurt , City Hall and Central Library in Hague, High Museum of Art in Atlanta, and the Getty Center in Los Angeles, we can observe the richness and complexity of space produced by the rotated grid system. Grid rotation systems can be divided into two cases: first, two sets of axis grid systems remain spatially independent from each other, without overlapping. The Getty Center is an ideal case. The geographical features and urban road texture are linked by two sets of rotated grid systems. The North-South axis goes through the ravines of site and the main buildings are layed out along this axis. Another axis is associated with the road network of the city, which is a reference grid to another group of buildings complex (Figure 3). Secondly, two sets of axial grid systems collide and overlap each other inside the building. The grid system of the overlapping part is more complex than the original grid system, which is the focus point of the planar constitution. In the Museum for Decorative Arts in Frankfurt, Meier presents the two sets of axis systems clearly by extending the axis and connecting the reference. In addition, he uses the design method of straightforward collision in the grid of pavement, which can strongly indicate the presence of two sets of axis systems (Figure 4).

  网格叠加

  GRID SUPERIMPOSITION

  网格叠加是指将对于建筑形态具有控制作用的几个网格体系叠合在一起,形成新的网格形式。乌尔姆展览馆与会议厅(Exhibition and Assembly Building in Ulm)是迈耶网格叠加手法运用的代表性作品。建筑作品选址于世界上最高的乌尔姆大教堂旁边。建筑设计不仅要求自身形式的优美,更强调对周围环境的关注和整合。通过对于建筑基地内控制线和控制网格的分析,迈耶认为在建筑基底上存在着两种控制网格:一是由教堂结构所提取的3m*3m的网格,该网格对整个场地有着绝对控制的作用;二是临近建筑一侧的传统住宅坡顶肌理提取出来的网格。此外,由于建筑所处的复杂环境,建筑的可建范围为一系列视觉控制线围合出的异型多边型区域。建筑采用了圆形和方形结合的构图形式,利用“圆”各向同性的建筑体型,将教堂结构衍生出来网格体系与视觉控制线形成的轴线体系融合一体。对于展览建筑而言,圆形对于人流流线也有着很好的暗示和引导作用。方形体块包含在圆形体块之中,呼应着周围传统住宅的网格体系。迈耶利用基地的视觉控制线对建筑形体进行切削的处理,顶部则采用了与传统住宅的肌理相互呼应的三角形顶窗(图5)。

  Grid Superimposition is a composition where several grid systems are superimposed together. They form a new grid system. The Exhibition and Assembly Building is an ideal example of using grid superimposition. It is located right next to the world‘s tallest church, Ulm Church. Therefore, the building form should not only be beautiful, it should also be context sensitive and well-integrated with the surrounding environment. Through the analysis of the control line and the control grid in the site, Meier develops two sets of control grid: First, a 3m * 3m grid system extracted from the church has absolute control over the entire site; Second, the grid system extracted from the roof texture of traditional residences adjacent to the buildings. In addition, due to the complex surrounding environment, the building is built in a polygonal area, shaped by a series of visual control lines. The form of building is a combination of circle and square. With the isotropic circle, the grid system derived from the church structure is integrated with the axis system of the visual control as a whole. For the exhibition building, the circular form has a good qualities of spatial suggestion for circulation. The square volume, whose grid system reflects the traditional residential typology, is surrounded by the circular volume. The building is cut by visual control lines, and the top of the building has triangular roof windows, which is an echo of the traditional residential texture (Figure 5).

  结语

  CONCLUSION

  近年来,随着复杂性科学的兴起,颠覆了人们看待事物时机械的,线性的和决定论的思维方式,认为世界是具有复杂性特征的非线性系统。复杂性科学和非欧几何学的新成果为建筑创作提供了新的思路和方法、分形建筑、拓扑空间、非线性建筑等基于非欧几何形态的建筑形式不断涌现。但不可否认的是,网格体系的创作手法以其严谨的空间逻辑、理性的思维方式和简洁的建筑形式,仍成为当代建筑设计的主流手法。当代建筑师在网格体系的模数化空间构成的基础上,加入了文脉、环境、意向等设计元素,网格构成手法更为丰富灵动,充满了人情化的色彩。

  In recent years, with the rise of complex theories, mechanical, linear and deterministic ways of thinking have been subverted. People have realized that the world is a nonlinear system with complex dynamics. New achievements in complex sciences and non-Euclidean geometry provoke new ideas and methods for architecture design. Architectural forms based on non-Euclidean, fractal, topological and other non-linear geometries are emerging. But it is undeniable that the use of grid systems is still the mainstream in design practices of contemporary architecture. It has several characters which can help produce accurate spatial logics, rational thinking and simple architectural forms. Based on the modular space of the grid system, architects can add contextual, environmental and other concerns to contemporary architecture, which in the end still aims to be richer, more flexible and humanistic.

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  李贺楠 Li Henan

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