意大利水泥集团研究大楼:关于结构工程的说明

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:意大利,水泥集团,结构工程
  • 发布时间:2013-08-22 14:42

  I.lab:Notes on the Structural Project

  By GennaroGuala

  意大利水泥集团研究大楼施工需要重新审查和改良在市场上现有的混凝土混合料。业主方,即意大利水泥集团公司,专门为这个项目开发了一种白色和灰色的自密实混凝土材料,旨在获取高强度再生物质含量,这是取得最高级别的LEED认证所需的可持续发展元素。用以保持建筑物的线性外观和干净的几何形状而采取的结构性解决方案,需要进行深入的分析和细致的计算。我想提其中最有趣的两项,人们从外面观察建筑物尤其明显的两项。

  The construction of Italcementi i.lab required the reexamination and improvement of the concrete mixtures available on the market. The client,Italcementi, developed a white and gray self-compacting concrete material specifically for this project,aiming both at high strength and high recycled material content- a sustainable element set to attain the highest level of LEED certification.The structural solutions adopted to maintain the linear appearance of the building and its clean geometries required in-depth analyses and painstaking calculations.Among the most interesting ones,I‘d like to mention two that are particularly visible to someone observing the building from the outside.

  预制屋顶结构

  THE PRE-CAST ROOF SHELLS

  该建筑的特点是沿北部和东部立面设置突出的屋面悬臂,沿公路有长10.6米的悬垂结构。悬臂在屋顶两个侧面之间连接处形成角度的平分线向外延伸约19米,其中一个尖锐的顶点构成的“鸟嘴形”设计,遮住进入该建筑物的入口广场。

  The building is characterized by prominent roof cantilevers along the northern and eastern elevations,with a typical 10.6 meter overhang along the highway. The cantilever exceeds 19 meters at the bisector of the angle between the two converging sides of the roof,where a sharp vertex constitutes the “beak” that covers the entrance plaza,from which the building is accessed.

  悬垂结构采用大型预制壳体制成,典型的表面积达到80万平方米,而“鸟嘴形”尖端设计的特点是一个非常特殊的形状,多维状,像钻石。实现所有这些元素,尤其是“鸟嘴形”尖端设计,需要对模板进行极其细致地设计和施工,从而保证线条完美流畅,并与底面保持一致。

  The overhangs are made up of large-scale precast shells-the typical one reaching a surface area of 80 square meters-while the cusp of the “beak” is characterized by a very atypical shape, multidimensional like a diamond. The realization of all these elements, and particularly of the cusp,required extremely subtlework in the design and construction of the formwork,which had to guarantee a perfectly smooth and consistent underside.

  其中一个挑战是,随着时间流逝造成弹性受到破坏之后,所有悬垂元素的边缘水平面必须呈完全平整和共面。这是不容易实现的,因为具有可变悬臂和重量的不同预制壳体会因而发生不同程度的变形,尤其是在“鸟嘴形”设计的周围。根据对每个壳体预计弹性破坏进行细致的计算,按不同高度,确定用于在安装过程中支撑预制构件的晶格结构位置。预制壳体的上部具有用作次梁的加强筋,然后将模板倒入悬臂梁来小心悬挂壳体。这些梁体被锚定到建筑物内的承重垂直结构,并根据该地区的抗震要求加以测量。

  One challenge was that after the phase of elastic failure,which was deferred in time,the horizontal planeat the edge of all overhanging elements had to be perfectly leveled and coplanar. This was not easily obtained because the different precast shells with varying cantilevers and weights would undergo different deformations, particularly in the area around the “beak”.The lattice structures used to support the precast elements during the installation were positioned at different heights,based on meticulous calculations of the elastic failure expected for each shell.The upper portion of the precast shells is characterized by stiffeners that act as secondary beams and by formwork that was later to be poured into cantilevered beams,to which the shells were carefully suspended. These beams are anchored to the load-bearing vertical structures inside the building and measured according to the seismic requirements of the area.

  混凝土承重竖框幕墙

  CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE LOAD-BEARING MULLIONS

  中庭入口和礼堂的西墙由高大的玻璃幕墙环绕,突出了建筑物和空间之间的虚实对比,以及水平表面和垂直元素之间的对比,这也是理查德·迈耶建筑设计的特点之一。这样做的目的是通过放弃使用传统的铝合金型材,而采用白色的预制混凝土竖框来使这些幕墙与别不同。这是一个独特的解决方案,需要开发少见的细节,并应在足尺模型上进行测试。我们面临和解决的一个主要工程挑战是尽可能保持这些承重结构修长,竖框不应该被误用作柱体,横楣也不应该与梁混淆,同时仍然提供足够的刚性,以避免变形超越可以接受的限制,从而保证玻璃的完整性。

  The access Atrium and the Auditorium west wall are bounded by tall curtain walls that accentuate the contrast between solids and voids,horizontal surfaces and vertical elements,characteristic of Richard Meier’s architecture. The intent was to differentiate these curtain walls by abandoning the use of typical aluminum extrusions and employing instead white precast concrete mullions.This is a unique solution,which required the development of uncommon details and had to be tested on full-scale prototypes. One of the main engineering challenges we confronted and resolved was that of keeping these load-bearing structures as slender as possible-mullions should not be mistaken for columns; transoms should not be confused with beams-while still providing sufficient rigidity to avoid deformations beyond the limits acceptable to guarantee the integrity of the glazing.

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