伊东丰雄第35届普利兹克建筑奖获奖感言

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:普利兹克奖,伊东丰雄,建筑
  • 发布时间:2014-04-09 14:05

  女士们先生们,晚上好!

  今天,我有幸获得普利兹克奖,有幸面对这么多来自世界各地的亲爱的朋友们和杰出的建筑师们,我真是感到太激动了。今天也是第35届总统约翰·F·肯尼迪的诞辰周年,在这个日子我们齐聚约翰·F·肯尼迪图书馆,这真是一个特别的日子,我相信这将是我在建筑界生命中最美好的一天!

  首先,我向普利兹克家族表示衷心的感谢:感谢辛迪·普利兹克夫人、托马斯·J·普利兹克先生以及玛戈特·普利兹克夫人。我还要感谢评委会成员彼得·帕伦博先生勋爵、亚历杭德罗·阿拉维那先生、胡阿尼·帕拉斯马先生、格伦·马库特先生、斯蒂芬·布雷耶大法官、张永和先生以及玛莎·索恩女士。

  与此同时,身在波士顿,我不禁想起上月发生在这里的爆炸事件。请允许我向受害者表示沉痛的哀悼,也向所有那些生活在这儿、深受这些可怕事件影响的人们表示慰问。

  我的工作室开业至今,已经度过了42年的岁月。建筑这项事业,不是靠一人之力可以成就的,它还必须得到上天厚爱、拥有许多优秀的合作者,才能做好这一事业。我要向佐佐木睦朗先生表达我最深切的谢意,佐佐木先生是一位非常有才华的结构工程师,他今天也陪同我一起参加了这个颁奖典礼。在过去近二十年里,佐佐木先生不断地给我提供许多创造性的结构方面的思路,我对此深表感激。我还要感谢我现在和以前的员工陪同我一起分享、一起奋斗、一起辛勤工作了这么多年。

  做建筑就是试图在不稳定的、不断变化的社会和自然世界之中建立秩序。然而,我们常常在寻求秩序的时候,陷入了陈旧传统的解决方案,发现自己被限制性框架所禁锢。对我而言,建筑的任务就是把人们从那些限制性框架中释放出来,创建出让人们感到舒适的空间,在这样的空间中,人们能够获得一定程度的自由。

  因此,我阅读评委会对我作品的褒扬时,感到特别高兴。评委会成员评论说“我力图扩展建筑的可能性”,并认为我的作品“达到了宁静的境界,能够使居住者在其中自由自在地活动”。我一直都在努力向前推动我的建筑设计,从来不允许固化自己的风格。我这样做既是为了建筑“创新”,也是为了达到“宁静的境界”。

  今天,我们所居住的城市中的一些建筑,始建于二十世纪早期。在纽约和芝加哥,在整个人类历史上,都没有任何建筑可与密斯-凡-德罗和其他人所创廷的摩天大楼相比。在欧洲,勒·柯布西耶和他的同事们提出了绝妙的白色立方体生活空间概念,以及许多其它新都市主义建筑设计构想。这种创新的构想让我们看到了未来城市建筑设计的无限可能性。

  诸如此类的实验性和开拓性的努力成果,带来了新城市时代,人口开始向城市聚集。如今的城市,处处高楼鳞次栉比,其中已居住了世界50%的人口。在不久的将来,这个数字将上升到70%。“现代主义建筑”是基于这样的理念:迅速发展的技术,将允许人类在地球上的任何地点建成大量的、便宜而类似的建筑物,从而使越来越多的人向城市地区迁移成为可能。而这样的观点,同时也意味着世界上的城市失去了当地的特色,因为这些城市已被简化为一系列统一的、毫无特色的混凝土方盒。

  “现代性”概念,当然最初是来源于传统社会,是理性的解放和个体的自主,也是基于尊重个人自由的公民社会的形成。这一概念也蕴合了这样的信念,认为可以通过技术创新来征服自然。换而言之,也就是说二十世纪实现了现代性这一理想,实现这样的公民社会给今天的我们创造了更好的生活。

  然而,今天的城市,与一个世纪前我们的前辈所想象中的未来城市完全不同。城市居民把自己关闭在一个个单调的混凝土方盒里,这种现象茌当今世界很常见,人们与其他人之间的联系被切断了,一个个孤独地活在这个世界上。迄今为止,那些迁移到城市里梦想着自由和富足生活的人们,已经失去了往日的意气风发,转变为许许多多孤立的个体。现代主义建筑风格在其与自然之间建造了一堵墙,依靠科技创造了与自然没有联系的人工环境。现代建筑注重性能和效率,而把其自身与独特的历史和当地文化割裂开来。这种与自然的割裂以及对当地社会文化的排斥,应当归咎于当今城市的一致性以及在城市中生活的人们。

  我的作品一直致力于推倒这堵把现代建筑与自然和当地社会隔离开来的墙,并创造出面对自然、拥抱当地社会文化的建筑。我很高兴地看到评委会成员注意到我的作品在这方面的努力,他们评价说“伊东丰雄志在钢铁丛林中寻求自由,关注房间外观和内饰之间、以及建筑与环境之间的关系。伊东的作品从大自然法则中吸取了灵感,建筑的有机状结构、表层和表面之间的统一性就见证了这一点。”

  我一直坚持去参观两年前3月11日地震和海啸袭击的地区,每一次参观都会提醒我技术在大自然盛怒之下是多么的无力。这是人类的骄傲与自然对面碰撞带来的灾难。我认为,现在是我们重新亲近大自然的时候了,让人类单调城市中的混凝土方盒向广饶的大自然敞开胸怀,重建一个更加充满活力的人文环境。我呼吁我们所有的建筑师共同努力,向下一个世纪传递一个新的消息,就像一个世纪前我们的前辈传递给我们的一样,光明而充满希望。我们这些建筑师必须改变自己,不要过分关注细微的差别,而应该共同努力,为我们的下一代,寻求可以共享的信息。

  1961年,约翰·F·肯尼迪总统在其就职演说提议“全世界的公民们:不要问美国为你们做了什么,而要问我们一起能为人类的自由做些什么”。在半个世纪之后的今天,仍然没有任何一句话比这句话更能激励我们。此刻也是一样,我们要反问自己:我们自己能为人类的自由做些什么?我的演讲到此结束,非常感谢各位。

  2013年5月29日

  Good evening ladies and gentlemen!

  I am thrilled and honored to be awarded the Pritzker Prize in the presence of so many dear friends and distinguished architects from around theworld.It is also a special pleasure to be here,in the John F.Kennedy LibrarY,on the birthday of John F.Kennedy,the 35th President. I do believe this is the best day of mylife in architecture so far!

  I would like to express my hea rtfelt gratitude first to the Pritzker Family:Mrs.Cindy Pritzker,Mr.Thomas J. Pritzker,and Mrs.Margot Pritzker. I alsothank the jury members,Lord Peter Palum bo,Mr.Alejand ro Aravena,Mr.Juhani Pallasmaa,Mr.Glenn Murcutt,JusticeStephen Breyer,Mr.Yung Ho Chang,and Ms.Martha Thorne.

  At the same time,being here in Boston,I cannot help but think of the bombing that happened here last month. Please allow me to offer mycondolences to the victims and to all of those whose lives were affected by those horrific events.

  It has been 42 years since I first opened my studio. Making architecture is not something one does alone;one must be blessed with many goodcollaborators to make it happen. I would like to express my deep thanks to Mr.Mutsuro Sasaki,who is an extremely talented structural engineer,and whois here with us today. For almost twenty years now,Mr.Sasa ki has provided me with a steady stream of creative structural ideas for which I am extremelygrateful.I would also like to thank my current and former staff for sticking with me and sharing so much hard work and struggle over so many yea rs.

  To make architecture is to attempt to esta blish order in the midst of an unsta bleand ceaselessly changing social and natural world. It often happens,however,that in this search for order we settle into old or conventional solutions and find ourselves boxed into restrictive fra meworks. For me,the task ofthe architectisto release people from those restrictive frameworks by creating spaces in which they feel at ease and in which they can attain some degreeof freedom.

  This is why I was especially pleased to read the Jury Citation about my work. The jury members wrote that I am “seeking to extend the possibilitiesof architecture,”and that my works,“attain a level of calmness that ultimately allows the inhabitants to freely develop their activities within them.”I have always tried to push my architecture forward without allowing my style to remain static. And I have done this in the interest both of architecturalilinnovationll and in order to attain “a level of calmness.”

  The architecture of the cities we live in todayhad its begin nings in the early part of the twentieth century. In New York and Chicago,Mies Van derRohe and others created skyscrapers like nothing that had ever existed before in human history.In Europe,Le Corbusier and his colleagues proposedtheir shiny,white living spaces in cubic form,along with many other ideas for a new urbanism. This kind of innovative architecture seemed to offer limitlesspossibilities for the city of the future.

  These experimental and pioneering efforts brought with them a new urban age,and populations began to concentrate in the cities. Today’s citiesare brimming with skyscrapers and already they accommodate 50 percent of the world‘s population. In the near future that number will rise to 70percent. Modernist architecture,based on the idea that quickly developing technology would allow for inexpensive mass production of the same kinds ofarchitecture at any spot on the globe,made possible the migration of more and more people into urban areas. This same idea,however,also meant thatthe world’s cities lost their local identities as they were reducedtoa series of uniformand indistinguishable grids.

  The idea of“modernity”was of course originally about the liberation of rational and autonomous individuals from traditional communities, and theformation of a civil society based on respect for the freedom of individuals. It also entailed the belief that nature could be conquered through technologicalinnovation. I think it can be said that the twentieth century achieved this ideal of modernity and that the realization ofsuch a civil society has created abetter life for us today.

  Today‘s cities,however,look quite different from the cities of the future imagined by our predecessors a century ago.City dwellersare too oftenconfined within monotonous grids,their connections to other people are severed,and they are condemned to an isolated existence. By now,thosewho mig rated to the cities dreaming of a life of freedom and abundance have lost their spiritedexpressions and been reduced to a crowd of alienatedindividuals. Modernist architecture built a wall between itself and nature and relied on technology to create artificial environments with no connection tonature. It privileged function and efficiency,and cut itself off from the unique history and culture of its local settings. This kind of isolation from nature andrejection of the local communityis to blame for the uniformity of today’s cities and the people who live in them.

  My work has always been about tearing down this wall that separates modern architecture from nature and the local community,in order to createarchitecture that is open to both. I was very happy to see that the jury members took note of this aspect of my work as well. They wrote,

  “Seeking freedom from the rigidity of a grid,lto is interested in relationships-between rooms,exterior and interior,and building and surroundings.Toyo lto‘s work has drawn on inspiration from the principles of nature,as evidenced by the unity achieved between organic-like structures,surface andskin.”

  I make it a point to keep visiting the site of the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan two years ago on March ll,and each time I go I am reminded ofthe powerlessness of technology in the face of nature’s fury. This was a catastrophe brought about by human pride vis a vis nature.

  I believe that the time has come for us to take back our closeness to nature,to openourhumdrum city grids to nature‘s abundance,and to rebuild amore vibrant and human environment. I urge all of us architects to work together to send out a new message to the next century,onethat is as bright andfull of hope as the one transmitted by our predecessors a century ago.ln order for this to happen,we architects must transform ourselves. Let us not fixateon minor differencesibut rather work together to find a message for the next generation that we can all share.

  In his inaugural address of 1961,John F.Kennedy said,“My fellow citizens of the world:ask not what America will do for you,but what together we cando for the freedom of man.”Even now,a half-century later,there are no words that inspire us quite like these. Now too,we are being asked:what can weourselves do for the freedom of man?

  Thank you very much.

  May 29th,2013

  Translated by Mr.James Keith Vincent (Japanese to English)

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