伊东丰雄访谈(一)

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:伊东丰雄,建筑,日本
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 10:38

  2013年9月24日,日本建筑师协会的古市徹雄先生和张增辉先生在伊东丰雄建筑设计事务所,对伊东丰雄先生进行了采访。希望通过这篇长达两万字的访谈将伊东先生的建筑师全貌呈现给中国的读者。

  EDITOR’S NOTES:Mr.Tetsuo Furuichi and Mr.Zhang Zenghui from Japanese Institute of Architects (JIA) conducted anexclusive interview with Mr. Toyo Ito in his office on Sep.24,2013. This article withtwenty thousand words is expected to present an over all perspective of Mr. Toyo Ito to Chinese readers.

  古市徹雄(以下简称古市)∶感谢伊东先生这次接受我们的专访,我们希望通过这本特辑,将伊东先生的全貌介绍给中国的读者。在本次专访中,希望聆听先生讲述自身从少儿时代到高中、大学的成长经历,以及之后作为职业建筑师的从业之路。

  TETSUO FURUICHI (FURUICHI):THANK YOU FOR HAVING THIS INTERVIEW WITH US,MR.ITO. THROUGH THIS SPECIAL ISSUE,WE EXPECT TO OFFEROUR CHINESE AUDIENCE A THOROUGH VIEW OF MR. ITO AS AN ARCHITECT. THEREFORE,WE WOULD LIKE TO HEAR YOU TALK ABOUT YOUR LIFEEXPERIENCES FROM CHILDHOOD,TO HIGH SCHOOL,TO COLLEGE,AND YOUR CAREER PATH AS A PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECT THEREAFTER.

  伊东丰雄(以下简称伊东)∶客气了,有什么尽管问吧。

  TOYO ITO (ITO):You are very welcome. Feel free to ask anything,please.

  古市∶首先,先生的籍贯是(日本)长野县吧?

  FURUICHI:First of all,Mr. Ito,you are originally from the Nagano Prefecture in Japan,right?

  伊东∶是的。因为我父亲在二战前从九州去了韩国首都汉城(现在的首尔)工作,所以我是在战争开始那年,即1941 年在(韩国)那边出生的。

  ITO:Yes. My father moved from Kyushu to work in Seoul,Korea before the World War II,so I was actually born in Seoul in 1941,the year when the warbroke out.

  古市∶在汉城您生活到几岁呢?

  FURUICHI:When did you move back to Japan from Seoul?

  伊东∶在那边住到两岁左右便回到了日本。那时还是战争期间呢。回来后便住在父亲在乡下的故里,下诹访町[1] 那个地方。

  ITO:We went back to Japan when I was about two years old. Thewar was still going on. After our return,we lived in my father’s hometown in thecountryside,Shimosuwa[1] Town of Suwa District.

  古市∶诹访,是那座有因湖泊而著名的美丽城市吧?

  FURUICHI:Suwa is the beautiful city located on the famous Lake Suwa, sn’t it?

  伊东∶钟表也很有名。在那里生活到初中三年级期间,从那之后就一直在东京了。

  ITO:It’s also well-known for its watch-making industry. We lived there until my third grade in junior high school. Then I moved to Tokyo,where I have livedever since.

  古市∶高中是日比谷高校。然后进了东京大学吧。能谈谈您的学生时代是怎样的生活吗?

  FURUICHI:You went to Hibiya High School there and the University of Tokyo after that. Could you talk a little bit more about your life in college?How wasit like back then?

  伊东∶驹场[2] 的时代都没怎么学习。结果在升学时能选择的专业范围便很局限了。在可选的专业中觉得建筑比较好,就像排除法那样地选择了建筑。

  ITO:Well,I wasn’t studying really hard for the first two years on Komaba Campus[2]. Therefore,when I advanced to junior year and had to choose a major,Ihad very limited choices. Out of all the options I had,architecture seemed better than the others, so I just went for it, just like a natural conclusion through

  the method of elimination.

  古市∶您本来也喜欢艺术方面的内容吧?

  FURUICHI:But you were interested in art or that sort of things in the first place,weren’t you?

  伊东∶我父亲喜欢画,还热衷于陶瓷,在这些方面受到了影响。从初中起在上学之外也去学画。不过也没到特别喜欢的程度。那时最着迷的是棒球。

  ITO:My father liked paintings,and he was a big fan of ceramics,too. To that extent,I was somehow affected by his passion for art. I started taking painting classes as an extracurricular activity in junior high school, but I wasn’t that into it. I was most passionate about baseball back then.

  古市∶那初中时代您也打球了?

  FURUICHI:So you played baseball during junior high school?

  伊东∶打球方面初中那时最努力了。到了高中则好像是玩的性质了,虽然也参加了棒球队,不过本来那个学校的水平也不高。

  ITO:As for baseball,I was really working hard on it during junior high school. Then it sort of became just something for fun in senior high school,althoughI also played on the school team. Well,that team wasn’t very good anyway.

  古市∶大学时代在建筑的学习上,给您留下印象的都有些什么内容呢?

  FURUICHI:WHAT WERE THE MOST MEMORABLE THINGS TO YOU ABOUT STUDYING ARCHITECTURE IN COLLEGE?

  伊东∶我进大学那时正好是东京奥运会[3] 即将到来的时候。当时丹下先生虽然还只是建筑系副教授,不过同时也已经是世界知名的建筑师了。新陈代谢派[4] 都是三十来岁便脱颖而出,那时对他们很是羡慕。进入建筑系后,感觉制图有些难度,和以前相比学习上也认真起来了。那时我们这代多数人希望去工作室类型的单位工作,比如去了前川事务所[5] 的大宇根[6] 先生,去了芦原事务所[7] 的松永[8] 先生,还有的人去了增泽洵[9] 或进来廉[10] 那里。

  ITO: The Tokyo Olympics[3] was just around the corner when I was admitted to college.Mr.Tange has already been a world-famous architect by then,although he was only an associate professor in the Department of Architecture. Most of the Metabolists[4] became noted in their thirties,which was quiteadmirable to me. After I enrolled in the Department of Architecture,I found it not easy to do drafting and designing ,so I studied harder than ever before.Back then,most architecture graduates of our generation wanted to work at studio-type firms. For example,Mr. Oune[6] went to Mayekawa Associates[5];Mr.Matsunaga[8] went to Ashihara Architects[7];some others went to Makoto Masuzawa9’s firm or Ren Susumurai10’s firm.

  古市∶还真不少呵。丹下先生的课都有些什么内容?

  FURUICHI:Wow,quite a lot!So,what did Mr. Tange teach in his classes?

  伊东∶丹下先生那时正忙于代代木奥运赛的工作,几乎很难在大学内看到他的身影,偶尔回来上课,也只是抱过来《新建筑》的合订本,照本宣科读一些有关传统争论的论文。不过那时他的形象可真令人印象深刻。

  ITO:Mr. Tange was busy working on the Yoyogi National Gymnasium project at that time and barely showed up on campus. When he did come back toteach a few classes every now and then,he would just bring a bound volume of the Shinkenchiku journal and read some articles about the debates ontraditions. However,he did make quite an impression on me.

  古市∶怎样的形象?

  FURUICHI:What kind of impression?

  伊东∶系着蝴蝶领结,记得是穿着绿色系方格图案的夹克,那个时代流行喇叭裤,所以他也常穿着宽下摆的裤子,还有尖头皮鞋,这个形象一般在街上看见,会让人感觉诧异:这人是干什么的?这种装扮在当时被认为是非常潇洒的,所以他曾经还被媒体评为最讲究衣装的人呢。

  ITO:I remember him wearing a bow tie and a green plaid jacket. Bell-bottoms were a hit during that time, so he also wore flared pants and pointed-toeleather shoes. Usually,if you saw someone dressed like that on the street,you probably would wonder “who’s that guy?”That kind of out fits were veryfashionable and cool back then,so Mr. Tange had once been rated as the best-dressed men by the media.

  张增辉(以下简称张)∶丹下先生那时多是这样的着装吗?

  ZHANG ZENGHUI ( Z ):Was Mr. Tange always wearing outfits like that back then?

  伊东∶大体上,蝴蝶领结是一直带着的。配着两侧头发往后梳的那种吉武泰水发型(大背头)。

  ITO:Most of the times,the bow tie was always there,and he always had that Regent hairstyle,with the hair on both sides combed to the back.

  古市∶制图都有些什么课题呢?

  FURUICHI:So,what were the topics in the design class?

  伊东∶制图课来了不少老师,比如增泽洵先生来主持过住宅的课题,那时吉武[11] 先生也还健在,主持过学校的课题。丹下先生那时正好作着电通大厦的设计。那个项目也就成为他给我们的课题。

  ITO:We had quite a few masters coming to our class. For instance,Mr. Makoto Masuzawa held a session on housing design. Mr. Yoshitake[11] was stillingteaching there at the time,so he also held a few sessions. Mr. Tange was working on the design of the Dentsu Building,so he used that project as the topicof our class assignment.

  古市∶就是现在建在筑地的电通那地方吧?

  FURUICHI:Is that the Dentsu building located in Tsukiji?

  伊东∶是的。他虽然出现在最终评审会上,不过感觉基本上只是笑嘻嘻地走过场而已。

  Ito:That’s right. Although Mr. Tange did show up at the final review,it was more like a mere formality,with a very relaxed ambience.

  古市∶您的毕业设计作了怎样的内容?

  FURUISHI:What did you do for your graduation project?

  伊东∶我设计了上野公园的改建规划,并取得了最优秀奖的辰野奖[12]。就在现在上野的国立博物馆前规划了非常强烈的轴线,并沿轴线来布置建筑物,同时将文化会馆、西洋美术馆等予以保存的规划。这个方案现在可真拿不出手,或许当时受到正面评价的是那种朝气吧。

  Ito:I designed the renovation plan of the Ueno Park and received the award for the best thesis: the Tastuno Award[12]. The plan laid out a strong axis infront of where the Tokyo National Museum is now located. The buildings were arranged along that axis while the old Tokyo Festival Hall and the NationalMuseum of Western Art were preserved. When I look back at it now,I won’t be proud of this plan,honestly. I guess it was awarded because of the passionand enthusiasm I put in the work.

  古市∶大学毕业后您好像去了菊竹[13] 事务所。能讲讲那时的情况吗?

  FURUICHI:AFTER GRADUATION FROM COLLEGE, YOU WORKED AT THE KIKUTAKE ARCHITECT AND ASSOCIATES[13]. COULD YOU PLEASE TALK MORE ABOUT THAT?

  伊东∶记得在我大三的时候刚好有京都国际会馆的竞赛。比我早一年进菊竹事务所的长谷川逸子[14],当时还是系里四年级学生,她说她帮忙菊竹事务所作了那个竞赛方案,我只是在后来才知道那个方案。除了这样的项目,还有正好那个时候,他们事务所完成了出云大社的办公设施,并发表了东光园宾馆项目的设计。通过这些项目,令我有了去菊竹清训先生那里的想法。我在大四的夏天,在那里工作了一个月。那时也可以说是我的建筑史的开端。大学时代,尽管毕业设计获得了一定的评价,不过说实在并没有多少明确信念的东西。可是去了菊竹事务所,通过那个夏天虽然只有一个月的开放体验(open desk),学习了建筑上的事情是如何被决定下来的过程。

  ITO:I remember there was a design competition for the Kyoto International Conference Center in my junior year. Itsuko Hasegawa[14],who joined theKikutake Architects one year earlier than I did,was still a senior in college then. She told me that she helped the firm with their competition entry. I didn’tknow about their entry until later,though. Besides projects like that,Kikutake Architects just completed the design of the Administrative Building of IzumoShrine and announced their design for the Toukouen Hotel. After I saw those projects,it occurred to me that I wanted to join their firm. I interned therefor about a month during the summer before my senior year,which could be seen as the beginning of my architecture career. Although I did earn somepraises for my thesis project in college,I didn’t really have much confidence as an architect,to be honest. However,during my internship at the KikutakeArchitects,through a month’s open-desk experience,I actually learned about how decisions were made in architectural design.

  古市∶具体来说是怎样的呢?

  FURUICHI:So how did you make decisions there, to be exact?

  伊东∶高度的集中力,该决定的时候一晚上就都定下来了。瞬时决定需要有高度的能量集中,反过来,一个月两个月一直推敲着的方案,有时也会撤回到白纸状态。每当看到这样的场面,便觉得不重新振作起来好好干,设计根本做不了。就好像在那里学到了一种能共鸣到内心的内容。因此,在开放体验的最后一天,我向菊竹先生请求允许我明年来事务所工作,菊竹先生也欣然应诺了。就这样,第二年我就去了那里。

  ITO:With highly intensive focus. When it had to be done,all decisions were made in one night. Instantaneous decision-making requires a tremendous concentration of energy. On the contrary,sometimes a design that has been reviewed and modified repeatedly for one or two months would ended up beingdiscarded and started all over again. Every time when I saw that happen,I felt the urge to pull myself together and to work even harder,or else it wouldn’teven be possible to get a design done. It felt like what I learned there was something that resonated deeply in my heart. So,on the last day of my open desk,Iasked Mr. Kikutake for a full-time position at the firm after graduation,and he happily nodded. Just like that,I joined the firm the very next year.

  古市∶当时和您一起的都有哪些成员?

  FURUICHI:Who were you working with at that time?

  伊东∶也就十来人。其中内井昭藏先生[15] 在最上面,接着是武者英二先生[16] 等,还有最近较少出现的,比如土井鹰雄先生[17] 等,另外还有在岩手县盛冈工作的久慈[18] 先生,这些人那时都在一起。

  ITO:Only about a dozen or so. At the very top,there was Mr. Shozo Uchii[15],the leader of the team. Right under him,there were Mr. Eiji Musha[16] and severalothers,including several designers who are less active these days,such as Mr. Tako Doi[17],etc. Also,there was Mr. Kuji[18],who is now working in Morioka,Iwate Prefecture. These designers were all working together at that time.

  古市∶远藤先生[19] 呢?

  FURUICHI:What about Mr. Endo[19] ?

  伊东∶对了,还有远藤先生。我们不经意地将内井先生、远藤先生和久慈先生三位称为御三家[20]。他们下面是武者先生和土井先生两人,我们将这五个人合称为五汉子。那时上下关系真的很明确,菊竹先生一发声,他们三人便一齐动作起来,内井先生画平面,久慈先生画立面,远藤先生则开始绘制细部。一声令下就开始设计这种情形,简直和军队一样,是一支训练有素的队伍。仙田满先生[21] 和长谷川逸子女士比我早一年进的事务所,之后第二年我加了进来,也是从那时起阵容开始乱了起来。光说自大的话,却懒得动手。长谷川女士倒是手很勤快的。不过仙田先生和我却是说的比较多的。

  ITO:Right,Mr. Endoalso worked there. We inadvertently called Mr. Uchii,Mr. Endou and Mr. Kuji “the Three Masters [20]”. Working under them were Mr.Musha and Mr. Doi. We called the five of them “the Five Men”. The hierarchical structure of the firm was very clear-cut back then. Once Mr. Kikutakedistributed the tasks,the Three Masters would start working immediately,Mr. Uchii sketching on the site plan,Mr. Kuji drawing the elevations, whileMr. Endo working on the details. Such a highly organized system,with one order followed by instant design actions,almost resembled an army,a well-disciplined one. Mr. Senda[21] and Ms. Hasegawa joined the firm one year earlier and I joined the firm the very next year. That was also the time when theteam structure became a bit disorganized. People spent most time on bragging and little time on really doing the work. Well,Ms. Hasegawa was actuallyquite diligent,but Mr. Senda and I were among those who talked a lot most of the times.

  古市∶那时您都参与了哪些项目?

  FURUICHI:What projects did you work on during that time?

  伊东∶在我进事务所那年,在进行着我实习时也参与过的都城市的市民会馆的项目。接下来正好要进入设计阶段,所以让我单独做设计调查。这项工作我单独干了一个月,最后做了内容的总结予以发表,第二年去那里一看,很吃惊项目都已经完成了。在我刚进公司的时候,东急电铁[22] 委托菊竹先生进行现在的田园都市线的沿线规划。因此在起初的两年,几乎都是在做这项工作。那时田园都市线还没通车,放眼是一面田地的状态。那个项目从规划开始,在初期工作中,并非进行具象建筑的设计,而是做了总体规划,集合住宅最初期的提案等。

  ITO:In my first year,the firm was working on the Miyakonojo Convention Center project,which I had participated in during my internship. They were aboutto start the design phase at that time,so I was assigned to conduct the design survey all by myself. I worked on that for a month and concluded with a finalpresentation. When I visited the project site the very next year,I was really surprised that the project had already been built up. Also,when I joined the firm,the Tokyu Corporation just appointed Mr. Kikutake to work on the master plan of the corridor area along the Ten-en-toshi Line[22],so I was mostly working onthis project for my first two years at the firm. The Line was not open yet and the entire site was all farmlands at the time. That was a project started fromsite planning,therefore,instead of substantial architectural design,we worked on the master plan and the preliminary plan of the apartment buildings,etc.

  古市∶之后还有哪些其它项目?

  FURUICHI:What other projects did you work on after that?

  伊东∶其它的,过了一年,便让我做了板桥区立保育园的设计。那个建筑好像现在还在。

  ITO:A year later,I was assigned to work on the design of the Itabashi District Kindergarten. I think that building still exists there.

  古市∶那可一定要去看看了。

  FURUICHI:Ah,it’s a must-see then.

  伊东∶我只参与到设计的阶段,我们没有做现场监理,似乎不太适合作为菊竹先生的优秀项目来发表吧。

  ITO:I only worked on the design phase and we did not participated in on-site supervision later on. So,I guess it’s not the best candidate to be presented asone of Mr. Kikutake’s signature pieces.

  古市∶您在那里总共工作了多少年?

  FURUICHI:How long did you work at the Kikutake Architects?

  伊东∶正好是四年。后半期主要是参与了70年的大阪世博会的准备工作。

  ITO:Four years even. In the latter two years,I was mostly working on the preparation for the Osaka World Expo’70.

  古市∶是综合整体的工作吗?

  FURUICHI:Was it the comprehensive plan?

  伊东∶是的。当时丹下先生是总体规划的统领,在他下面是矶崎(新)先生,菊竹(清训)先生,大高[23](正人)先生,以他们这些人为主设立了准备室。各个事务所都要分别派一个年轻的职员过来参与工作,有点像人质那样呵,我便是其中的一人了。准备室设置在丹下先生事务所的下面楼层,每周召开一次会议。会上的议论内容,便由我们在下面的一周时间内将其绘制成图,我做的就是这样的工作。

  ITO:Yes. Mr. Tange was the general director of the master planning,while Mr. Isozaki ,Mr. Kikutake,and Mr. Otaka[23] were working under him. They werethe key figures who set up and led the preparation committee. In addition,each firm was asked to assign a junior staff member to work on the project,likea hostage,and I was one of them. The preparation committee was set up in the same building where Mr. Tange’s design firm was located,just one floorunderneath. They held weekly meetings to discuss the designing ideas,which would then be drafted into drawings by us junior designers in the following week.

  古市∶听起来挺有趣的。

  FURUICHI:Sounds very interesting.

  伊东∶因此我得以常常在很近距离接触到矶崎先生和丹下先生。

  ITO:Indeed. Thanks to those meetings,I had the chance to closely interacted with Mr. Isozaki and Mr. Tange.

  古市∶您就是那个时候和矶崎先生认识的吧?

  FURUICHI:Was that when you knew Mr. Isozaki?

  伊东∶是的。那时大约是在1967~ 1968 年吧。

  ITO:That’s right. It was around 1967-1968.

  古市∶世博会的准备工作中有不少认识的人吧?

  FURUICHI:During the Expo preparation work,you must have met lots of people who you knew of,I guess?

  伊东∶说是认识,实际上那时候他们都已经是高高在上了,我不过还是个年轻职员,能搭上话就已经很高兴了。

  ITO:Well,I knew them,but actually they were already well-established senior designers while I was merely a young junior staff member. I would beoverjoyed to just have a word or two with them.

  古市∶准备室的工作团队中还有些什么人呢?

  FURUICHI:Who else were working on the preparation committee?

  伊东∶工作团队中,丹下先生那里的人样子还记得,不过项目之后也没有继续交往了。那时学生运动正闹得越来越激烈了。尤其是全共斗组织[24] 那帮人。由于还留在学校的我大学时的同学也都参加了学运,夜晚便常被叫到那些地方去。说是集会,其实也就是做募捐。所以昼夜的工作内容是截然断裂的状态。学运在1969 年达到高潮,连学校也被封锁了。当时我想这样两头做事也吃不消,干脆重返校园学习吧。可是大学都被封锁掉了,所以1969 年辞职后就不得不开始单干了起来。

  ITO:Among the team members,I could still remember the faces of those from Mr. Tange’s office,but we did not have much interaction after the project.The students’ movement was getting more and more fervent at that time,especially for those in the Zenkyoto[24]. Some of my college friends who stayedin school took part in the movement,so I was often asked to go with them at night. Those so-called rallies were actually just fund-raising activities. Duringthat time,I was doing completely different things in the day and at night. The students’ movement reached its peak in 1969,when schools were blockaded.I found it too exhausting to participate in the movement while still working on my job,so I thought,well,why not quit the job and just go back to school.Unfortunately, the universities were all blocked,so I had to start my own practice after I quit from the Kikutake Architects in 1969.

  古市∶独立后最初是怎样的工作呢?

  FURUICHI:WHAT TYPES OF PROJECTS DID YOU INITIALLY WORK ON AFTER YOU STARTED YOUR OWN PRACTICE?

  伊东∶因为这样的原因,并非有了主动的发展愿景而辞职的,所以一个项目都没有。在信州的比我年长不少的姐夫,继承了父亲去世后的味噌酿造业。刚好那时他来到东京,准备开始经营父亲喜欢的陶瓷器的展廊。就是用卖掉信州的土地和工厂的钱,在东京买了一小块地,计划在那里建房。造那种一层设有小展廊,一共四层的小写字楼,于是请他让我做了这个设计。建成后我借用了那楼的顶层,只有十五坪[25] 左右的小地方,在那里一干就是好几年。地点就在离现在这个事务所不远的地方。

  ITO:At the beginning,I did not have even a single project contract,since I was not prepared to work independently when I quit the job. My brother-in-lawin Shinshu,who is much older than me,inherited the miso brewery factory from his father. He happened to visit Tokyo at the time and was about to opena gallery of ceramics, which my father really loved. So he sold the land and the factory in Shinshu and bought a small piece of land in Tokyo,where heplanned to build a small four-storey office building with a mini gallery on the ground floor. I asked him to let me design the building. After its completion,Irented the tiny space on the top floor,about 15 tsubos25,and worked there for quite a few years. It is located not far from my current office actually.

  古市∶最初事务所的名称是“都市机器人(URBOT)”吧。

  FURUICHI:The name of your studio was initially called URBOT,wasn’t it?

  伊东∶是的。

  ITO: Yes.

  古市∶那是怎样的一个事务所?

  FURUICHI:What kind of studio was it?

  伊东∶最初是和在丹下研究室一起搞过交通规划的同学月尾嘉男[26] 联合设立的事务所。他不想搞建筑设计,而希望作一些像电脑软件开发这样的工作。这在那个时代可是最前沿的工作。那时月尾在为矶崎先生制作世博会的机器人软件。所以和他一起取了“城市机器人”这个名字,连设立公司的章程文件都写好了,正计划着一起开展电脑软件和建筑设计的工作,就在这个时候,从矶崎先生的事务所传来了“等一下”的要求。理由是当时月尾在矶崎先生的事务所进进出出,随意做事可不好。而且正值世博会即将举行的时候。结果被这么一说他也有些怕了。最终是我一个人顶着“城市机器人”这个名字,开始了事务所的工作。这便是“城市机器人”名字的来由,或许给人稍微有点不可思议的感觉吧。

  ITO:Originally,I set up the studio together with my classmate Yoshio Tsukio26,who worked on transportation planning at Mr. Tange’s firm. Tsukio was notinterested in architectural design. Instead, he wanted to do something else,like developing computer software,which was the most cutting-edge work atthat time. Tsukio was developing the robot software for Expo ’70 for Mr. Isozaki then,so we named our studio “URBOT ”. We had even drafted the articlesfor setting up the firm already. We were expecting to open our joint business of computer software and architectural design when,all of a sudden,wereceived a message from Mr. Isozaki’s office,saying “hold on”. Tsukio was working closely with Mr. Isozaki’s office at that time,so it might not be the besttime to open his own business. Moreover,it was a very crucial time as the World Expo was just about to open. Given those reasons,Tsukio backed off,so Iended up starting my studio under the name URBOT all by myself. This is the story behind how I named URBOT,a name that may sound a little strange tosome people.

  伊东∶正好那个时候,刚才说的在信州的姐夫来了东京,在辻堂建了房子。那个房子就是“铝之家”。他对我说∶“铝之家”可以按你喜欢的样子来设计,不过是没有设计费的。写字楼必须按我说的来做,不过会付给你设计费。就这样的条件,在我没有项目时从姐夫那里接到了两个项目。青山那里的楼,一直保留到最近。因我的外甥和侄女也搞建筑设计,所以最近把它拆掉重建了。

  ITO:At the very same time,my bother-in-law,who I mentioned just now,came to Tokyo and built a house in Tsujido. That house is the later-calledAluminum House. He said to me:“You can design the Aluminum House the way you like it,but you won’t get any fee. I will pay you fees for the design ofthe office building,but you have to do it exactly as I say.” Just like that, under those conditions,I got two projects from my brother-in-law when I had noproject to do. The building in Aoyama was preserved until very recently,when my nephew and niece,who are also architects,tore it down and rebuilt it.

  古市∶那时事务所有其他职员吗?

  FURUICHI:WERE THERE ANY OTHER EMPLOYEES?

  伊东∶职员,那时就我一个人。后来有个年轻人看到我在杂志上发表的文章,千方百计想来我这工作,另外他又介绍了一个女子大学毕业的女孩,之后便三人一直干了下来。又过了一段时间,石田敏明[27] 先生从广岛来到东京加入了我们的行列。

  ITO:Only one employee,myself. Later,a young man read my article on a journal and insistently requested to work for me. Then he also referred a youngwoman graduated from a women’s university to the firm. So the three of us continued working together thereafter. After a while,Mr. Ishida Toshiaki27 cameto Tokyo from Hiroshima and joined us.

  古市∶伊东先生也有那样的时代。

  FURUICHI:Even Mr. Ito had a hard time like that!

  伊东∶是啊。那时起初根本没有工作,一年就一个或两个项目,主要都是些认识的人的住宅等。首先是在早稻田的尾岛俊雄[28] 老师。尾岛老师在菊竹事务所负责设备,特别是地域冷暖气的设计。因为我常去尾岛研究室,尾岛先生就说,如果你创业的话,那我就来当第一个雇主吧。就这样由我来设计尾岛老师的家,他对我真的是很关照。

  ITO:Indeed. We hardly had any contract initially,only about one or two projects every year, which were basically designing houses for the people we knewof. The first client was Professor Toshio Ojima28, who was in charge of the equipment design at the Kikutake Architects,with a specialty in designing theheating and cooling systems. As I visited Professor Ojima’s lab quite frequently,he promised to be my first client if I started my own business. So,when Idid start my practice,Professor Ojima asked me to design his house. He was really caring about me.

  张∶依您看来,建筑师在那个时代创业很辛苦吧?

  Z:SO TO SPEAK,IT WAS REALLY DIFFICULT TO START UP AN ARCHITECTURAL BUSINESS DURING THAT TIME,WASN’T IT?

  伊东∶是的,那时1970 年代上半期,碰上石油危机真的很辛苦。

  ITO:Definitely. It was the early 1970s,when the oil crisis hit hard. It was a very difficult time.

  古市∶可以说是最严峻的时代。

  FURUICHI:It may be the most difficult time ever.

  伊东∶1960 年代景气起来。可是以70 年为分界,一下子就掉了下来。那是个大家都抢购厕纸、前途一片黑暗的时代,有的只是时间,整天闲着。那时的朋友,和石山修武[29],还有石井和纮[30] 等开始有了交往。

  ITO:The economy was booming in the 1960s. However,after 1970,which was like a dividing line,everything collapsed all of a sudden. That was an erawhen everyone was panic buying toilet papers and everything in the future was in dark. What we only had was time,with nothing to do. It was during thattime when I started to become close with Osamu Ishiyama]29] and Kazuhiro Ishii[30] and others.

  古市∶就是所谓的野武士[31] 的世代吧。

  FURUICHI: These were the people who are the so-called Nobushi Generation31.

  伊东∶是的。和富永让[32] 等朋友们一起,因为没钱到外边喝酒,所以常常把酒买回来,傍晚便聚集在事务所一喝喝到天亮。

  ITO: That’s right. We and a group of friends, such as Yuzuku Tominaga32, often gathered together. As we could not afford to drink at the bars, we oftenbought liquors from the store and drank together in the office till the next morning.

  古市∶对我们来说,最印象深刻的莫过于中野本町之家。那是哪年的项目?

  FURUICHI: TO MOST OF US, THE FIRST IMPRESSIVE HOUSE YOU DESIGNED MUST BE THE WHITE U . WHEN WAS THAT PROJECT?

  伊东∶ 1976 年。这项目实际上是我姐姐的家。我的这个姐姐,他们夫妻和两个小女儿,本来住在东京的公寓中,姐夫因为癌症突然去世,于是姐姐卖了公寓,刚好我所住的中野的家正后方的地皮在出卖,话说着说着成了干脆搬到那造个新家吧,结果我就做了那个设计。姐姐从事音乐这行,艺术上的爱好在有些地方比我还高,在和她边沟通边设计的过程中,形成了在封闭的管状体中投射进光线那样的、地下般的建筑。

  ITO: In 1976. That project was actually my sister’s house. She used to live with her husband and their two daughters in an apartment in Tokyo. Her husbanddied of cancer unexpectedly, so she sold the apartment. Coincidently, a piece of land was put up for sale right behind my house in Nakano at that time.When I talked about it with my sister, she decided to buy it and build a new house, and I became the designer. My sister was a musician, so she was actuallymore passionate for artistic stuff than I was in some aspects. During the design process, I constantly exchanged ideas with her and finally came up with theidea of making the building shaped like an underground facility, allowing light to shed into closed tubing areas.

  古市∶这样说来,这个建筑也在一定程度上包含了您的姐姐所构思的形象和要求吧。

  FURUICHI: To that extent, this building in some way also reflected what your sister imagined and requested, didn’t it?

  伊东∶和原先的希望全然不同,中间在商量比如这样做怎么样的时候,既然要这样的话还不如这样来吧、那样来吧的,逐渐往形成美的空间的方向靠了上去。当时她丈夫突然去世,孩子也还小,她应该是带着剩下来三人的家庭可得一起和睦地生活下去的强烈意志。

  ITO: It ended up completely different from what she expected actually. During our discussion on the design, we often started with asking what about this,what about that, and then we were like, if we were going to do it this way, why not doing it that way. Eventually, the design was gradually getting closer andcloser towards aesthetic space. At that time, her husband just passed away unexpectedly and her kids were still young. She must have a strong will that thethree of them left behind ought to live on together as a happy family.

  古市∶一个大房间那样的空间是吧?互相都连通着。

  FURUICHI: The space is like a giant room in which every room is inter-connected, isn’t it?

  伊东∶是的。成了很内向型的空间。

  ITO: Yes. It became very introvertive space.

  古市∶对这个项目我还有着记忆呢。记得那是我进丹下事务所后最初的新年,去丹下老师家拜年,偶然碰上了矶崎先生。在说着这个那个话题中,丹下老师问最近的年轻建筑师都有些什么人,于是矶崎先生便说最近有个叫伊东丰雄的挺有趣。接着又被问道那他在做些怎样的东西。那时提到的就是银色小屋和中野本町之家。矶崎先生还画了个草图来说明,因此印象深刻。

  Furuichi: I remember that design very well. It was the first New Year after I joined Mr. Tange’s firm. I paid a New Year’s visit to Mr. Tange and ran into Mr.Isozaki there. As we were chitchatting, Mr. Tange asked if there were any emerging young architects recently. Mr. Isozaki told him that Toyo Ito was quiteattention-grabbing. When Mr. Tange later asked about Mr. Ito’s works, Mr. Isozaki mentioned the Silver Hut and the White U. Mr. Isozaki even did a sketch ofthe White U for illustration, so I had a very strong impression about this design.

  PS:1.下诹访町,长野县诹访郡的一町。长野是伊东丰雄父亲的出生地。在亚洲一些国家,比如中国和日本,父亲的出生地被认为是本人的籍贯。因此,伊东丰雄认为自己的籍贯是长野。

  Suwa District is under the jurisdiction of Nagano Prefecture where Toyo Ito‘s father was born. In someAsian countries such as China and Japan, father’s place of birth isconsidered as where a person is originally from. Therefore, Toyo Ito thinks himself as originally from Nagano.

  2.驹场,东京大学所在地,共通课程在这里上,建筑系在另外的分校区。

  Komaba Campus is the campus for all freshmen and sophomores of the University of Tokyo, while the Department of Architecture is in another branch compus.

  3.东京奥运会,1964 年10 月10 24 号,夏季奥运会在东京举行,这是首次在亚洲举办。

  The 1964 Summer Olympics were held in Tokyo, from October 10 to 24 in 1964, the first ever held in Asia.

  4.新陈代谢派,在日本著名建筑师丹下健三的影响下,以青年建筑师大高正人、槇文彦、菊竹清训、黑川纪章以及评论家川添登为核心,于1960 年前后形成的建筑创作组织。他们强调事物的生长、变化与衰亡,极力主张采用新的技术来解决问题,反对过去那种把城市和建筑看成固定地、自然地进化的观点。

  Metabolists refer to a group of Japanese architects who initiated Metabolism, a post-war architectural movement that fused ideas about architectural megastructures with thoseof organic biological growth. During the preparation for the 1960 Tokyo World Design Conference, a group of talented young architects and designers, including Masato Otaka,Fumihiko Maki, Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa and the critic Noboru Kawazoe prepared the publication of the Metabolism manifesto.

  5.前川事务所,1935年由前川国男先生创立的工作室,许多日本著名的建筑师都曾在那里工作,比如丹下健三先生。前川国男(1905-1986)是日本现代建筑的关键人物。曾为勒·柯布西耶和雷蒙做草图设计师。

  Mayekawa Associates is the studio established by Mr. Kunio Maekawa in 1935. A number of famous Japanese architects have worked there, including Kenzo Tange. Kunio Maekawa(1905-1986) was a key figure in Japanese modern architecture. He once worked for Le Corbusier and Rayonod Hood.

  6.大宇根弘司(1941-),著名的日本建筑师,日本建筑师协会的第七任会长。

  Hiroshi Oune, born in 1941, is a noted Japanese architect and the 7th president of the Japanese Institute of Architects (JIA).

  7.芦原事务所,由日本建筑师芦原义信(1918 2003)创立。他毕业于东京大学建筑系、哈佛大学研究生院,历任日本法政大学、武藏野美术大学和东京大学教授,曾担任第39 届日本建筑学会会长、第11 届日本建筑师协会会长。

  Arshihara Architects was an architectual design firm founded by Japanese architect Yoshinobu Ashihara (1918 2003), who graduated from the Department of Architecture ofTokyo University and the Graduate school of Harvard Unikersity. He was the professer of Hosei Universtty, Musashino Art University and Tokyo University, and the 39th presidentof the AIJ and the 11th president of the JIA.

  8.松永安光(1941-),日本建筑师。日本鹿儿岛大学工学部建筑系教授,1965 年毕业于日本东京大学建筑系,在芦原建筑设计研究所工作后留美。1972 年哈佛大学研究生院毕业,1992 年设立近代建筑研究所。代表作有熊本市营托麻住宅区(1994)、幕张海湾新城第四号街坊集合住宅(1995) 等。

  Yasumitsu Matsunaga, born in 1941, is a Japanese architect and professor at Kagoshima University. He graduated from the Department of Architecture at the University of Tokyoin 1965 and worked at the Arshihara Architects before he studied in the U.S. Matsunaga received his master‘s degree from Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1972 and foundedthe Modern Architecture Institute in 1992. His noted works include the Takuasa Complex in Kumamoto (1994), the Makuhari Baytown Patios 4-bangai (1995), etc.

  9.增泽洵(1925-1990),日本建筑师。1947 年毕业于东京帝国大学工学部建筑系,后就职于雷蒙建筑设计事务所并师从著名建筑家安东尼·雷蒙。1956 年独立开设了增泽建筑设计事务所,并在1952 年发表了自家住宅“最小限住宅”而出名。在狭小用地上通过导入挑空中庭获得空间的开放性,成为日本在探究最小限住宅方面的指针之一,对现代日本建筑师在具备高品质居住性的最小限住宅设计方面有着高度的影响。

  Makoto Masuzawa (1925-1990) , was a renowned Japanese architect, who graduated from the Imperial University, College of Engineering in 1947 and worked for Antonin Raymond(student of Frank Lloyd Wright) before he established his own firm in 1956. Masuzawa was most known for his design of “The Minimum House” in 1952, maximizing the openness ofa house on a small lot by introducing a high atrium. The Minimum House became highly influential on the design of good-quality housing in limited space among modern Japanesearchitects.

  10.进来廉(1926-2009),日本建筑师国际建协副主席。1950 年毕业于东京大学建筑系,之后就职前川国男的事务所。1955 年远渡法国、成为柯布西耶最后的日本人弟子。之后还师从让·普鲁威、夏洛特·贝里安等法国建筑和设计师。1963 年回到日本,设立了廉建筑设计事务所,在设计工作的同时还兼任多所大学的建筑教育工作。主要作品包括法国航空在日本的分公司、日本驻法大使馆官邸等。

  Ren Suzuki (1926-2009), was a Japanese architect and former associate president of the International UIA. He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1950 and worked atMayekawa Associates before he studied in France in 1955. He was the last Japanese student of Le Corbusier and also learned from several other French architects and designers,including Jean Prouvé and Charlotte Perriand.In 1963, Suzuki returned to Japan and established his own design firm in 1964. His noted works include the Air France branch officein Japan and the Japanese Embassy in France. Besides practicing, he also guest lectured at several universities in Japan.

  11.吉武泰水(1916-2003),日本建筑学者、建筑师。日本建筑学会第35 任会长,东京大学名誉教授,以所设计的“51C”型住宅模型著称。

  Taisui Yoshitake (1916-2003), a noted Japanese architect and the 35th president of the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ), most known for his design of the 51C model ofapartment layout. He taught at the University of Tokyo during the 1950s and 1960s.

  12.辰野奖,是一个表彰建筑系优秀学生论文工作的奖项,为了纪念辰野金吾(1854 1919)而设立,他是著名的日本建筑师,并为东京大学前教授,曾任东京帝国大学工学部长。他师从英国建筑师乔赛亚·康德,并于1879 年以第一名成绩毕业。随后公费留学英国,并在1881 年至1882 年在威廉·伯吉斯的办公室工作。在他返回东京之后,他首先在东京帝国大学校任教,随后成为东京大学建筑系系主任。1886 年,辰野金吾成为“建筑公社”(日本建筑学会的前身)的创始人之一,并在此后担任过日本建筑家学会的第三和第五任会长。

  The Tatsuno Memorial Award is an award honoring the best students’ thesis work in the Department of Architecture, established in memory of Kingo Tatsuno (1854-1919), a notedJapanese architect former professor at the University of Tokyo and the minister of the college of Engineering. He studied in Japan at the Imperial College of Engineering where hegraduated at the top score in 1879 under the instruction of the British architect Josiah Conder. He visited England and worked in the office of William Burges in 1881-1882. On hisreturn to Tokyo, he taught first at the Imperial College of Engineering before becoming the dear of Department of Architecture at the University of Tokyo. In 1886, he was one ofthe founders of the forerunner of the AIJ, then called “Building Institute”. He also served as the 3rd and 5th president of the AIJ.

  13.菊竹清训事务所由菊竹清训(1928-2011)于1953 年创立,菊竹清训为新陈代谢派的著名创始人之一。

  Kiyonori Kikutake Architect and Associates, or K. Kikutake Architects, is an architectural firm established by Japanese Architect Kiyonori Kikutake (1928-2011) in 1953, who is aprominent Japanese architect well-known as one of the founder-members of the Metabolist group.

  14.长谷川逸子(1941-),日本著名建筑师。曾任早稻田大学、东京工业大学讲师、美国哈佛大学客座教授等职。1979 年成立长谷川逸子事务所,多项作品在日本国内外获奖。她是英国皇家建筑师协会的荣誉会员。

  Itsuko Hasegawa, born in 1941, is a noted Japanese female architect. She lectured at Waseda University, Tokyo Institute of Techrolgy, and was the quest professer of HarvardUniversity. In 1979 she formed her own design firm, Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier, which has designed a number of award-winning buildings in Japan and abroad. Hasegawa is anHonorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

  15.内井昭藏(1933-2002),日本建筑师,于1958 年在早稻田大学本科及研究生毕业后加入菊竹事务所。1967 年成立个人事务所,1992 年在京都大学获工学博士学位。

  Shozo Uchii (1933-2002), Japanese architect. He joined the Kikutake Architects in 1958 after finishing his undergraduate and graduate studies at Waseda University. Heestablished his own design firm in 1967. He also obtained his Ph.D. in Engineering from Kyoto University in 1992.

  16.武者英二(1936-2012),日本建筑师。1960 年毕业于日本法政大学,后师从菊竹清训。1978-2002 任法政大学工学部建筑系教授,后成为名誉教授。著有许多建筑设计教科书及资料集,特别在日本的民居村落研究方面留下丰富的成果。自身在作品集《静肃之光》序文中阐述了“建筑不仅是功能与技术的集合、还需要体现时代与风土、成为具备丰富人性的美丽造物”的建筑思想。

  Eiji Musha (1936-2012), Japanese architect. He graduated from Hosei University in 1960 and worked at Kikutake Architects. He taught in the Department of Architecture at HoseiUniversity between 1978 and 2002, then became professor emeritus afterwards. Musha has authored many textbooks and reference books in architectural design and conductedample research on Japanese folk residences. In the preface of his book Light of Silence , he has stated his architectural philosophy as such: “Not only is architecture a combinationof functions and technologies, but it also has to represent the times and places, to become a beautiful creature of humanities”.

  17.土井鹰雄(1936-),日本建筑师。菊竹清训事务所初期的主要成员之一,之后独立。作品主要有私人住宅和展示等,著作包括《W-image 形象的扩散与集聚》等。

  Takao Doi, born in 1936, is a Japanese architect. He was one of the early and major members at the Kikutake Architects before he opened his own design firm. He is the author ofthe book The Dispersion and Agglomeration of the W-image . His design works were majorly private residences and exhibitions.

  18.小川惇( 旧姓:久慈),久慈设计社长、日本建筑师。1956 年毕业于日本明治大学工学部建筑系后进入菊竹清训建筑设计研究所工作。1968 年成立自己的设计事务所。1976 年加入久慈一户建筑事务所、后发展成现在的久慈设计。作品有盛冈大学图书馆等。

  Makoto Ogawa (Kuji), Japanese architect and president of Kuji Architects Studio. He graduated from Meiji University in 1956 and briefly worked in the Kikutake Architects beforehe founded his own design firm in 1968. He joined Kuji Yichinohe Architects in 1976, which became the now-named Kuji Architects Studio. Morioka College Library is one of hisnoted design works.

  19.远藤胜劝(1934-),日本建筑师。1954 年早稻田大学毕业后1955 年加入设立未久的菊竹清训事务所。之后40 年间辅助菊竹先生成就了包括酒店、商业、教育、住宅等广范围的多数建筑作品。1995 年退休后设立自己的设计事务所至今。主要作品包括久留米市政府大楼、横滨国际客运枢纽、江户东京博物馆等。著作包括《观察测量建筑》等多数。

  Syokan Endo, born in 1934, is a Japanese architect. He graduated from Waseda University in 1954 and joined the Kikutake Architects in 1955. During his 40 years working there,Endo helped Kikutake with a variety of design works , including hotels, commercial buildings, schools, residences, etc. After he retired, he established his own design studio in1995. His noted works include the Kurume City Hall, Yokohama International Transit Hub and Edo-Tokyo Museum, etc. He also authored many books, including The Observation andMeasurement of Buildings .

  20.御三家,是日语一个统称用语,用于某个领域最具代表性、最权威的三者的总称。

  The Three Masters is a term widely used in Japanese as to refer to the three most representative or established figures in a certain field.

  21.仙田满(1941-),日本建筑师和环境设计协会创始人,原第九任日本建筑家协会会长,第四十七任日本建筑学会会长,1964 年加入菊竹事务所,于1968 年创建仙田满环境设计研究所。

  Mitsuru Senda, born in 1941, is a Japanese Architect and founder of the Environment Design Institute (Japan). He served as the 9th President of the JIA and the 47th president of the AIJ. He joined the Kikutake Architects in 1964.

  22.东京急行电铁株式会社,日本的大型私营铁道企业之一。东急电铁线连接了东京西南郊区与东京附近的神奈川县。

  The Tokyu Den-en-toshi Line is a major commuter line operated by the private railway operator Tokyu Corporation and connecting south-western suburbs of Tokyo and neighboring Kanagawa Prefecture.

  23.大高正人(1923-2010),日本建筑师、城市规划师。1947 年毕业于东京大学工学部建筑系,1949 年至1961 年之间进入前川国男建筑事务所,1960 年以在东京召开的世界设计会议为契机,与菊竹清训、黑川纪章等结成代表日本二战后的初期建筑思想运动团体的“新陈代谢”派。1962 年成立自己的建筑事务所。代表作品包括大阪世博会入口(1970)、千叶县立中央图书馆(1970)、多摩新城总体规划(1966) 等、另外还参与“住宅群计划”、“百万城市规划”等多数的城市规划合作试案。

  Masato Otaka (1923-2010) was a Japanese architect and urban planner. He graduated in architecture from the University of Tokyo in 1947 and worked at Mayekawa Associates from 1949 to 1961. During the 1960 Tokyo World Design Conference, he became a founder-member of the Metabolist group, together with Kiyonori Kiku take and Kisho Kurokawa.He opened his own design firm in 1962. His noted works include the Entrance of the ‘70 Osaka Expo (1970), the Central Library of Chiba Prefecture (1970), and the Master Planof Tama New Town (1966), etc. He also participated in a number of collaborated urban planning pilot programs, including the “Residential Cluster Plan” and the “One-Million-Inhabitants City Plan”

  24.全共斗组织,1968 1969 年日本学生运动中结成的学运组织。

  Zenkyoto, or All Campus Joint Struggle Committee, was a student activists’ group formed mostly by university students in Japan in the late 1960s.

  25.坪,日本的面积单位,1 坪约为3.3 平方米。

  Tsubo is a Japanese unit of area measure. 1 tsubo equals about 3.3 square meters.

  26.月尾嘉男(1942-),工学博士、东京大学名誉教授。1965 年毕业于东京大学工学部建筑系, 后又于1978 年获得博士学位。历任名古屋大学、东京大学建筑系教授、政府总务部审议官等。著作包括《信息化时代商务环境》和《缩小文明的展望》等。

  Yoshio Tsukio, born in 1942, is a professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo. He received his Bachelor‘s and Doctorate Degrees in 1965 and 1978, respectively, both from the University of Tokyo. He has also taught at the Nagoya University, Tokyo University and worked as the Deputy Officer of the Department of General Affairs. He is the author of Business environment of the information age and Aiming to beyond a thousands years out kook of reduction civilization .

  27.石田敏明(1950-),日本建筑师、前桥工科大学建筑系教授。1973 年毕业于广岛工业大学建筑系。1973 1981 年在伊东丰雄事务所工作,1982 年成立自己的设计事务所,擅长私人住宅及集合住宅设计。主要作品包括网岛的家(1992)、NOS 住宅(1993) 等。

  Toshiaki Ishida, born in 1950, is a Japanese architect and professor of the Department of architecture at the Maebashi Institute of Technology. He graduated from Hiroshima Institute of Technology in 1973 and worked at Ito’s studio from 1973-1981. He opened his own design firm in 1982. His expertise is majorly on the design of private residences and apartment buildings. Noted works of his include “The House of Amijima” (1992) and “The NOS Residence” (1993).

  28.尾岛俊雄(1937-),日本建筑师、教育家。曾担任日本建筑学会第45 任会长。分别于1960 年、1962 年和1965 年在早稻田大学获得学士、硕士和博士学位,毕业后留校任教,2008 年退休。

  Toshio Ojima, born in 1937, is a Japanese architect and educator, who served as the 45th president of the AIJ. He received his bachelor‘s, master’s, and doctorate degrees from Waseda University in 1960, 1962, and 1965, respectively, and taught there after his graduation until he retired in 2008.

  29.石山修武(1944-),日本建筑师、早稻田大学理工学部教授。曾获日本建筑师学会奖、威尼斯双年展金狮奖。

  Osamu Ishiyama, born in 1944, is a Japanese architect and former professor at Waseda University. He has won many prizes including the Annual Prize from Architctural Institule of Japan, Gddenlion Prize of Venice Biennale and the Prize Yoshida Isoya.

  30.石井和纮(1944-),生于东京,日本建筑师。毕业于东京大学工学院建筑系,在东大工学院以矶崎新为师。1969、1975 年分别取得东京大学硕士与博士学位;曾就学于耶鲁大学的查尔斯·摩尔,之后于1976 年开设了石井和纮设计事务所。

  Kazuhiro Ishii,born in 1944, is a Japanese architect who graduated from the Department of Architecture in Tokyo University, where he followed the instruction of Araca Isozaki,and earned his master‘s degree in 1969 and doctor’s degree in 1975. He was once educated in Yale University by Charles Willard Moore then opened his own design firm in 1976.

  31.野武士,没有导师、完全靠自己摸索决策的武士。普利兹克奖得主槇文彦先生,用这个词汇形容一群日本建筑师,从卑微无名起步,逐渐获得声誉,最终成为成功的设计大师。

  Nobushi Generation is a term proposed by Pritzker Prize-winner Fumihiko Maki, used to describe a group of Japanese architects who started humble and gradually gained reputation and became successful great designers.

  32.富永让(1943- ),生于奈良县, 毕业于东京大学建筑系。曾于1976 年至1972 年间在菊竹清训建筑设计事务所工作,法政大学教授。

  Yuzuku Tominaga, born in 1943, is a Japanese architect who graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1967 and worked at the Kikutake Architects from 1967 to 1972. He also was the professer of Hosei University.

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