伊东丰雄访谈(三)

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:伊东丰雄,建筑,日本
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 10:50

  伊东∶TOD‘S 还不是遵从算法的作法。和塞瑟尔·巴尔曼德一起做的伦敦展廊,是通过正方形的回旋展开、以算法为基础、直线伸展出来的形状来构成结构体。采用算法的作法,很大程度上限制了平面的规划,伦敦展廊可以作成方形的箱子,不过对大体量的建筑物则很难处理好。因此在TOD’S 项目中采用的是树状的结构。通过手工试作不断地修改,来调整树状分枝从而形成了那种相当随意的树的排列方式。

  ITO: The TOD’S building was not quite so. The Serpentine Gallery I did with Cecil Balmond was a structure based on an algorithm, formed by expandedsquared loops and straight lines stretching out. Designing a structure by an algorithm would largely limit the site plan. We could design that Gallery as asquared box, but it is quite difficult to handle it in a large-scale building. Therefore, what we did in the TOD’S building was a tree-like structure, which we adjusted over and over again through many try-and-error hand-made models until the arrangement of the branches looked naturally and casually.

  古市∶御木本银座2 店也有着相近的气氛吧?

  FURUICHI: The Mikimoto Building in Ginza also has that natural feeling.

  伊东∶是的。我觉得御木本这个项目因为墙面比较多,作起来还比较容易。TOD‘S 表参道可真是手工作业,非常麻烦。那时每次我去看现场,都感觉施工太了不得了。当时施工是由竹中公司做过PRADA 表参道大楼的队伍整个转过来接手的,一支非常优秀的队伍。他们的态度就好像这种东西对我们来说小菜一碟,大伙都干劲十足。工地上弥漫着一种微妙的紧张对立,在那里感觉就是连个玩笑都开不了的氛围。所有配筋都是斜交而非直交。因为需要将水平筋与斜筋进行组合,他们用电脑作出了三维的动画,在现场边看边配筋。那时我看了觉得都做到这步了,他们也太棒了,都是优秀的工匠,混凝土也浇筑得很漂亮。

  ITO: Right. I feel that the Mikimoto Building was an easier task, because there were many walls to work on. The TOD’S building was truly a hand-madepiece, very complicated. I was really amazed by the workers every time when I visited the construction site. The construction work was done by a teamfrom the Takenaka Company, who had just finished the PRADA Omotesando Building, a truly exceptional team. The complicated construction work seemedlike a piece of cake to them and everyone put on their best performance. The construction site had such a subtle tension that would not bear even onelittle joke. All the reinforcements were diagonal instead of orthogonal. In order to join the horizontal and diagonal reinforcement bars, they drafted 3Dcomputer graphics and joined the reinforcements by looking at the those graphics on site. When I saw that, I felt like: “this is unbelievable! They are suchexcellent craftsmen!” And the concreting was also done beautifully.

  古市∶是的。还是清水混凝土呢。一方面,伊东先生在国外也有不少委托,做了不少国外的项目吧。最初是怎样的工作?

  FURUICHI: IT REALLY WAS. NOT TO MENTION THAT WAS AS-CASTFINISH CONCRETE ! BY THE WAY, MR. ITO ALSO HAD BEEN INVITED TO DESIGN QUITE A FEW PROJECTS OVERSEAS. WHAT TYPE OF PROJECTS WERE THEY INITIALLY?

  伊东∶大概是从90 年代起,在国外演讲的机会也多起来,逐渐地收到参加各种竞标的邀请。其实在那之前,也作过一两个小东西,最初的契机是巴黎Cognacq-Jay 的末期看护医院。业主偶然看到我们设计的八代老人之家的照片,作为尝试一下的考虑邀请了我们。让·努维尔是法国杰出的建筑师,他们四组和我们加起来一共五组参加了竞标。由于是远道而来的参加,同时这是个私人项目,我当时觉得在竞标中胜出的可能性很少。在做了方案介绍后很长时间都没有收到联系,正想着估计没戏时,突然接到业主亲自打来的电话说:好消息,祝贺你们中标了。然后开始了协商,最初主要是关于立面的设计,我们也构思了一些内容,带过去了两个方案。不料却迎头招来业主的一顿说∶干吗拿来两个方案,我们要看的是你们认为最想实现的方案。这话也不是责备我们的意思,我们却就这样退了出来,之后每月飞一趟过去汇报。归结成一个方案拿去后,业主那边是刨根问底,比如龙骨为什么要这么分枝等,问了很多东西也不接纳。结果这样的方案汇报反复了有三、四轮,大约过了半年的时候才说总算明白了,脸上也有了笑容。这时我们才知道∶原来国外的客户是这么热心,要自己将内容全部理解后才放行方案的。反过来,由于地处巴黎市内,通常都会有周围居民的反对,在召开居民说明会时,不管对方说什么,业主方都会回答这是第一好的,等于是业主站在前面支持我们。

  ITO: I had received increasing lecturing invitations and various bidding competition invitations overseas since the 1990s. Well, in fact, I had done a couple of small projects before that. My first project abroad was the Cognacq-Jay Hospital in Paris. The client of that project happened to have seen the pictures of the Home for the Elderly in Yatsushiro I designed, so they invited us in the bidding competition, just to have a try. There were five teams in the bidding,including Jean Nouvel, an outstanding French architect. I thought that we had a very slim chance of actually winning the bid, because we came from faraway and the project client was from the private sector. We haven’t heard from the client for a long time after we submitted and presented our design. Iwas thinking we were probably out when suddenly I received a phone call from the client himself, saying: “Good news! Congratulations! You won the bid!”Then we started to discuss the details. At the beginning, we talked about the section design. We already had some thoughts, so we prepared two options and presented both to the client. Unexpectedly, the client questioned:”Why did you bring two options? What we wanted is the most ideal scheme in your mind.” They didn’t mean to blame us by saying that, though. We just returned home to work on it and flew there to present the new design every month afterwards. After we combined the two schemes into one and presented it to the client, they asked many detailed questions such as “why did you makethe structure grid branching like this?” and they were reluctant to accept our design. So we did several more rounds of adjustments and presentations,until finally, after about six months, all the questions were cleared and we could see smiles on the clients’ faces. That was the time when I realized that foreign clients were so passionate about the projects that they would not let it go until they full understand everything about the design. On the other side, because the site was located within the city, projects usually would be challenged by the residents in the area. When we held community meetingsand presented our design to the residents, no matter what they questioned, the clients would just reply to them: “This is the best design”. The clients werestanding in front of us and defending us against all the challenges.

  古市∶这和日本的行政官员可不太一样啊。

  FURUICHI: That’s really different from Japanese government officials.

  伊东∶简直是两码事。要在日本,一般在看到对方的脸色后,马上会对我们说∶拜托再改一下吧。法国的做法真不简单。

  ITO: Totally different. In Japan, once the clients got negative feedbacks about the design, they would immediately tell us to modify it again. It’s really great what the French clients did for us.

  古市∶反过来就是自己必须先接受这个内容。

  FURUICHI: On the flip side, they must accept the design themselves first.

  张∶只要最好的一个方案的思维确实了不起他们就会接受。在这边我们常常会被业主问还有没有别的,比如带了两个方案去汇报,还会被问“没有其它

  方案吗”这样的话。

  Z: The idea that they only wanted the best scheme is truly remarkable. Here in our country, the clients usually ask for more options. If we prepared two options to present, we would be requested whether we have any other options.

  古市∶确实文化的成熟度不同。那边的人基本上对建筑的造诣还是比较深的。

  FURUICHI: Probably because of different cultural backgrounds and maturities. The French are usually quite knowledgeable about architecture design.

  伊东∶还有,在协商中对方只来了业主和医院院长两人。其他还有一个是作为医院顾问的人,就这么三人来定所有的内容。医院内药房的人、护士等其他人的希望和意见已经全部归结给了院长,因此我们和他们之间不用任何沟通了。我想在这点上人家确实是成熟的社会呵。

  ITO: Moreover, in the community meetings, the client only brought the hospital president and another hospital consultant with him. Just the three of them made all decisions. Opinions from the other hospital staff members, the pharmacists, nurses and the others had already been collected and briefed to the hospital president, saving us lots of time on communications with them. I think, to this end, the French are a really mature society.

  古市∶我印象特别深刻的还有根特的歌剧院[45],那也是很精彩的方案呵。

  FURUICHI: ANOTHER IMPRESSIVE DESIGN OF YOURS IS THE FORUM45 IN GHENT, BELGIUM. THAT WAS ALSO A VERY BRILLIANT DESIGN!

  伊东∶那个方案,估计评委最终都没有完全理解其中的内容。

  ITO: Well, about that design, I guess even the judges didn’t fully understand its contents.

  古市∶像这些竞标的场合,伊东先生的事务所是如何来推进的? 以前我在NHK的节目中看过介绍伊东先生的团队参与丹麦竞标的介绍特辑,觉得非常有趣。这方面您能给我们介绍一下吗?

  FURUICHI: In these bidding competitions, how did you organize the work flows in your firm? I once watched a special NHK program on how your team participated in a bidding competition in Denmark and found it very interesting. Can you please talk a little bit more on that?

  伊东:大致上竞标项目大家都会举手想做。五、六人组成一组,当然了一边还得帮着另外的工作。最初,让特别是年轻的职员来做建筑内容的分析。接着确定这个建筑该有多大的尺度感、该有哪些建筑内容,在这个基础上来进行空间的组织。这个过程可能大家都一样的。然后对类似设施进行资料调研。接下来开会确定本项目该有哪些主题性的内容。大致上会由我来作出提示。在这些确定的条件下,各自绘出草图,经过几轮反复,期间我自己也会画出草图来。在这个阶段大家和我都是平行思考的状态。

  ITO: Usually most people would like to participate in bidding projects. A team is made up of five or six people, who of course also need to work on other projects at the same time. At first, the junior staff members would conduct the analysis of building functions. Then we made decisions on the scale and the contents of the building, based on which we organized the space design. Everyone was on the same page in this process. Then we would do somecase studies on similar buildings and hold meetings on the themes of our design. Generally I would first propose some ideas or give some hints. The teammembers then drafted their own schemes independently under these fixed conditions. Their designs usually would need a few rounds of adjustments,during which time I also drafted my own scheme. Everyone in the team and myself are all working and thinking independently during this whole process.

  古市∶就是基本上平等的感觉吗?

  FURUICHI: So everyone is equal?

  伊东∶是的。虽然大致上还是我的方案好,不过他们也会提出一些有趣的点子,定下一个可行的方向后再开展来思考,这样又有了分歧,再综合起来再展开的过程。就是这么来回重复。

  ITO: Yes. Although generally my scheme is better than the others, they would also provide some interesting ideas. So the whole process started frommaking decisions on the general directions, which then developed into diverging design ideas, and then consolidated back into one design again. It justwent back-and-forth like this.

  古市∶那这个导演总是伊东先生在当吧?

  FURUICHI: So Mr. Ito always plays the role as the general director?

  伊东∶是的。就这样每回,边做几个小模型边深化。这个阶段对大伙来说是最有激情的阶段。然后便是最终定下来这次就用这个方案。期间还有与结构、设备进行协商,边协商边把内容定下来。这个过程,如能顺利地决定下来方案就好确定,如果来来回回都无法修出成果时,便渐渐焦躁起来,有时真很痛苦。

  ITO: Pretty much. In each round, we developed the design as we made several small models, which was the most exciting phase to everyone. Then finally,at last, we decided which scheme to use. During the entire process, we also negotiated with the structure and equipment engineers and decisions weremade during those negotiations. It would be easy to decide on the final scheme if the whole process went smoothly. Reversely, it would become quitefrustrating and even rather painful sometimes, when we could not come up with the final design after repeated modifications.

  古市∶在结束的瞬间,会不会有“搞定”的心情或“没搞定”的感觉?

  FURUICHI: At the finishing moment, would you have that feeling like “that’s it” or “not quite there yet”?

  伊东∶是的,当然各种情况都有。

  ITO: Absolutely. We’ve had all kinds of situations and all kinds of feelings.

  古市∶还真有啊? 自己觉得“搞定”的时候,大概都能取胜吧?

  FURUICHI: Really! When you felt “that’s it”, you most likely would win, I guess?

  伊东∶大概是吧,这时候作为自己也是非常爽快的心情。像仙台这个项目,当时就觉得这个准能行。

  ITO: Sort of. For me, I would also feel really good at times like that. For example, when I did the Sendai project, I had a strong feeling that the design

  definitely would work.

  古市∶对国外的项目,前面您提到辛苦, 不过像台中大都会歌剧院这个项目,应该是让您大胆发挥的感觉吧?

  FURUICHI: FOR OVERSEAS PROJECTS, YOU MENTIONED THAT THEY MAY BE TIRESOME. HOWEVER, FOR PROJECTS LIKE THE TAICHUNGMETROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE, YOU WERE ALLOWED TO DESIGN WITH YOUR WILDEST IMAGINATION.

  伊东∶台中的项目,最终是跟扎哈的单挑对决。结果我们从中取胜了。我想台湾是稍微特殊的地方,那个项目是台中市的,即市政府的项目。是由市政府发包的。在台湾多是以市为中心来发包公共工程。作为四大城市的台北、台中、台南和高雄,互相之间总是竞争的心理,有着很强烈的竞争意识。因此在那个项目上,当时台中市方面有一种“我市要搞这么了不起的工程”的热情。因为有这样的激情,所以我想那个大胆的方案能够被他们接受。不过市长是真高兴,认为要的正是这样的东西。

  ITO: The Taichung project narrowed down to a one-on-one duel between me and Zaha Hadid at last. Luckily, we won. I think Taiwan is a quite unique place.That project was a government project, assigned by the City Government of Taichung. It is quite rare in Taiwan to have projects assigned by higher-levelgovernment bodies. Instead, most of the public projects are assigned by city governments. As the four major cities in Taiwan, Taipei, Taichung, Tainan,and Kaohsiung are quite competitive against each other. So the City of Taichung was very excited to prepare for such a grand project. I guess it was partlybecause of their passion for grand projects that my bold design idea was well-received by them. The mayor was really pleased and thought my design wasexactly what they wanted.

  古市∶这对建筑师来说也是高兴事啊,能够高度地评价建筑。不过,现在日本的状况正相反。

  FURUICHI: It is very satisfying for an architect to receive such high praise. However, the situations in Japan are just the opposite.

  伊东∶日本已经是那种尽量稳当、尽可能不要出问题的思考方式吧。

  ITO: The Japanese are now inclined towards playing safe and avoiding any problems.

  古市∶不是向前看,而是向后看。台湾方面是向前看的感觉。

  FURUICHI: Not looking forward, but looking backward. In Taiwan, they are looking forward.

  伊东∶台中市长非常热衷于这方面,邀请了三大声乐家之一的多明戈[46] 等。但由于演不了歌剧,只能不时搞些个人的彩排之类的。好像因为这个原因,有了希望搞歌剧院的想法。

  ITO: The Mayor of Taichung City is very passionate about opera. He even invited one of the three great tenors, Plácido Domingo46, to perform there.But they didn’t have a venue for opera performances, so they could only hold a few private rehearsals every now and then. Because of that, he had thethoughts of building an opera house.

  古市∶这个工程已经进展到什么阶段了?

  FURUICHI: Which phase is this project now in?

  伊东∶现在已经基本完成了结构体。

  ITO: They have almost finished the structure now.

  古市∶大体的空间形象也出来了吧?

  FURUICHI: And the general building form has already shown?

  伊东∶下部的脚手架已经拆了。接下来是装修和设备方面的工程。下部已经开始装修了。

  ITO: The lower scaffold has been taken down already. The next phase is building decoration and equipment engineering. They have already starteddecorating on the lower part.

  古市∶完成后肯定很精彩。

  FURUICHI: It must be really brilliant after completion.

  伊东∶脚手架拆下来后,虽然还相当粗糙, 不过还是颇有魄力的。

  ITO: After the scaffold was taken down, though still in a coarse form, the building does look quite powerful.

  古市∶国外的项目,现在都有哪些国家的什么项目在进行呢?

  FURUICHI: What other overseas projects are you working on right now?

  伊东∶基本集中在台湾和新加坡。台湾另外还有台湾大学社会科学院的校园。建筑已经完成了,预定明年开放,现在正在布置家具。还有另一个是松山的原烟草工场用地的开发。在保留原来旧建筑的同时,建造包括写字楼、酒店和商业设施的综合大厦。

  ITO: Mostly in Taiwan and Singapore. In Taiwan, we also did the campus design of the School of Social Sciences at Taiwan University. The buildings havealready been constructed and are expected to open next year. They are setting up the furniture right now. Another project is the redevelopment of the oldtobacco factory in Songshan. While preserving the old buildings, there will be a mixed-use building, including offices, hotels and retail facilities.

  古市∶这个项目现在进行到哪个阶段?

  FURUICHI: Which phase is this project in?

  伊东∶已经大体上完成了。还没有举行开业典礼,不过已经在举办各种活动了。

  ITO: Almost finished. The opening ceremony is yet to come, but they have already started to hold various events there.

  古市∶新加坡那边呢?

  FURUICHI: What about your projects in Singapore?

  伊东∶新加坡方面,现在正进行着一个高245 米的写字楼塔楼工程。

  ITO: In Singapore, I’m involved in a 245m tall office tower project, which is going on right now.

  古市∶是称作CapitalGreen 的那个项目吧?

  FURUICHI: Is that the project called “CapitalGreen”?

  伊东∶是的,正逐日高大成形。必须在下来的约一年半时间内竣工。还有南洋大学的学生宿舍,此外有个私人开发商的高级公寓项目也在进行中。

  ITO: It is. It’s gradually building up and has to be completed in about one and a half years. I also designed the Ressidental Hall at Nanyang Drive forNanyang Technological University and a high-end residential project by a private developer in Singapore as well.  古市∶现在您在新加坡也有事务所吗?

  FURUICHI: DO YOU HAVE A BRANCH OFFICE IN SINGAPORE AS WELL?

  伊东∶没有,采用轮流替换的方式,每次大概三个职员来回跑。新加坡有比较多的国外建筑师在开展工作,因为是英语圈的国家,沟通上也比较容易,也习惯了和当地事务所的合作,因此工作相对比较顺利。这方面台湾就比较困难,因此我们在台中常驻了几名员工。

  ITO: We don’t. Our staff members take turns to go back and forth between the sites and our office in Japan, about three people each time. There are manyforeign architects working in Singapore. Our communications with clients are fairly easy, because it’s an English-speaking country. Also, we are used towork together with local design firms there, so the projects could go on quite smoothly. In terms of communications, it’s more difficult in Taiwan, thus wehave several employees working there full-time.

  古市∶现在您的事务所中有多少外国籍的职员?

  FURUICHI: How many foreign employees do you have in your firm?

  伊东∶外国人很少,现在只有一人。虽然在日本也有不少事务所雇用了尤其是来自欧美国家的很多外国人,但我总觉得彼此之间思考的事情还不太一样。在某种意义上来说,作为员工外国人有很多优秀的人才,不过一方面也由于我们的语言沟通能力有限,很难作到顺畅的交流。

  ITO: We have only one right now. Although many Japanese design firms hired foreigners from Europe and America, I still feel that the ways of thinking arequite different between us. On one hand, there are many talented designers from abroad. On the other hand, however, because of the limitations on ourlanguage abilities, it’s quite difficult to communicate with each other very efficiently.

  古市∶现在事务所总共有多少人?

  FURUICHI: How many employees does your firm have now?

  伊东∶现在在东京大约是40 人,此外在巴塞罗那还有几人。

  ITO: About 40 people in Tokyo and a few more in Barcelona.

  张∶像您在台湾那里同时有几个项目在进行,业主有没有要求您在当地设点?

  Z: As you have a few projects going on in Taiwan, did the clients ask you to set up a branch office there?

  伊东∶没有。只要与当地的事务所配合好,工程便可以顺利进展。我们在巴塞罗那设了个点,不料设点后便发生了难题。

  ITO: No. The project can proceed smoothly as long as we work closely with the local firms. We did set up a branch office in Barcelona, but had somedifficulties afterwards.

  古市∶现在日本也有各行各业的公司在新加坡开设事务所。虽然相当困难,不过听说将总部设在那边的话公司的纳税完全不同。

  FURUICHI: There are many Japanese firms setting up offices in Singapore. Although it’s not easy, I heard the tax policies would be quite different there.

  张∶以前是在香港,最近大家都去新加坡了。

  Z: Hong Kong used to be the hot spot. Now everyone goes to Singapore.

  伊东∶对,香港也同样。

  ITO: Yes, it’s the similar situation in Hong Kong.

  古市∶话题稍微转一下, 最近伊东先生介绍过环境的内容吧。歧阜媒体中心的项目也属于这个范畴的吧。能不能给我们介绍一下这方面的内容?

  FURUICHI: NOW IF WE MAY CHANGE THE SUBJECT A LITTLE BIT, MR. ITO, YOU HAVE TALKED ABOUT ENVIRONMENTALISM RECENTLY. THEPROJECT IN GIFU IS AN EXAMPLE OF SUCH THOUGHTS, ISN’T IT? CAN YOU SHARE MORE DETAILS WITH US ON THAT?

  伊东∶好的。大概是从做仙台项目到最近,在相当程度上,尤其追求的是结构的表现和建筑整体表现的内容,设计上追求的是创造某种强有力的建筑。接下来我想尝试考虑一些设备方面的内容。通过在最初阶段便与设备工程师进行磋商,在反复摹拟测试的同时进行设计,特别是针对能源方面的问题。我想将比如气流或光等能源的问题反映到设计上,准备在这两、三年对这些内容进行研究。不过这方面的工作,由于设备工程师他们还不太习惯,所以暂时还不像结构那样地顺利开展。

  ITO: Sure. From when I designed the Sendai Mediatheque until very recently, my design has been in a large part trying to create some sort of powerfularchitecture, especially to demonstrate the structure and the form as a whole. Next, I want to try taking into account the aspect of equipment a little bitmore. Through discussing with equipment engineers at the very beginning of a project, we can work on the design while testing repeated simulations,especially on the issues about energy use. I want my design to reflect my thoughts on energy-related issues such as ventilation and lighting. That is thetopic I plan to conduct some research on in the next couple of years. Nevertheless, the equipment engineers are not so used to work with us on thesetopics, so it’s not as smooth as what we used to work on structure engineering yet.

  古市∶在日本,结构工程师历史悠久,也有很多优秀的人才。而设备方面应该说还比较少。

  FURUICHI: In Japan, we have a long history of educating structure engineers and there are many talented professionals, while good equipment engineers

  are relatively rare.

  伊东∶设备工程师中,比较优秀的人通常去了工程总包单位,在独立的事务所则比较少。最近,歧阜媒体中心项目和日本奥雅纳合作。通过研究气流的同时来更换设计的内容,这种做法对我来说好像还是第一次。

  ITO: Well, most of the good equipment engineers work at the overall contracting companies. Only a few work at independent design firms. In my recentproject, the Gifu Convention Center, we collaborated with ARUP Japan. In that project, we modified the design while studying ventilation. That was my veryfirst time to work that way.

  古市∶当今地球环境的问题出现了很多呼吁。日本的天气,气候也发生巨变,出现了龙卷风、大洪水,情况确实很严峻。报纸上也常常出现“观测历史上首次,最大”等字眼的灾害报导。

  FURUICHI: There are many advocates for environment awareness due to the global environmental issues nowadays. There have been drastic weatherchanges in Japan as well. We’ve see tornados, tsunamis, and it’s getting really serious. Newspapers also frequently report natural disasters and describethem with extreme terms such as “largest ever”, “first ever in observation history”.

  张∶只今年一年就出现了好几回“百年一遇”的现象了。

  Z: We have seen a few “once-in-a-hundred-years” weather conditions in this year already.

  伊东∶真是这样,环境发生了巨变。

  ITO: Exactly. The environment has changed dramatically.

  古市∶因此考虑到这些状况,或许今后建筑的主角会转变成设备方面?

  FURUICHI: So, given such circumstances, maybe the major concern in architecture would shift to the equipment issues?

  伊东∶是的。还有我总感觉到,西欧的建筑追求的是令自然与建筑分立,从自然中分立出来的部分便是建筑。而我们应该在建筑中确立与之不同的秩序。从历史的角度来看,我想这种不同的秩序构成对建筑的定义。相比之下,在亚洲,特别是在日本,追求的是向自然敞开、与自然一体化的建筑。或许这和这个地区的温和气候也有关,不过历史上已经有过了,如今再次通过向自然敞开的方式来思考节能的问题,是适合我们的,而且可以从中实现舒适的生活,我希望研究一下这方面的内容。就是进行各种各样的尝试吧。

  ITO: I think so. Also, I always feel that the Western European architecture design tries to make nature and architecture separated from each other. They regarded architecture as the part independent of nature, however, we should establish different orders within architecture. From a historical perspective,that different orders partly became sort of the definition of architecture. In comparison, in Asia, especially in Japan, the architecture tries to open to thenature and to be integrated with nature. Maybe this is partly due to the warm weather here, but such thoughts had been well-received in the old days. Nowit’s the time for us to think about energy-saving through the openness to the nature again. I think this idea suits us and we can achieve comfortable livingby applying it, so I want to study this topic and do some experiments.

  PS:45.2004 年伊东丰雄入围比利时根特市的“根特市综合文化设施设计”设计竞赛的设计方案。

  The full name is called “Forum for music, dance and visual culture”, Toyo Ito’s entry in a design competition of a performance hall in Ghent in 2004.

  46.普拉西多·多明戈(1941-),生于西班牙马德里。9 项格莱美大奖获得者、世界三大男高音之一。

  Plácido Domingo, born in 1941 in Madrid. As one of the world-famous Three Great Tenors, Domingo has won nine Grammy Awards.

关注读览天下微信, 100万篇深度好文, 等你来看……