- 来源:建筑创作 smarty:if $article.tag?>
- 关键字:伊东丰雄,建筑,日本 smarty:/if?>
- 发布时间:2014-04-11 10:50
伊东∶TOD‘S 还不是遵从算法的作法。和塞瑟尔·巴尔曼德一起做的伦敦展廊，是通过正方形的回旋展开、以算法为基础、直线伸展出来的形状来构成结构体。采用算法的作法，很大程度上限制了平面的规划，伦敦展廊可以作成方形的箱子，不过对大体量的建筑物则很难处理好。因此在TOD’S 项目中采用的是树状的结构。通过手工试作不断地修改，来调整树状分枝从而形成了那种相当随意的树的排列方式。
ITO： The TOD’S building was not quite so. The Serpentine Gallery I did with Cecil Balmond was a structure based on an algorithm， formed by expandedsquared loops and straight lines stretching out. Designing a structure by an algorithm would largely limit the site plan. We could design that Gallery as asquared box， but it is quite difficult to handle it in a large-scale building. Therefore， what we did in the TOD’S building was a tree-like structure， which we adjusted over and over again through many try-and-error hand-made models until the arrangement of the branches looked naturally and casually.
FURUICHI： The Mikimoto Building in Ginza also has that natural feeling.
伊东∶是的。我觉得御木本这个项目因为墙面比较多，作起来还比较容易。TOD‘S 表参道可真是手工作业，非常麻烦。那时每次我去看现场，都感觉施工太了不得了。当时施工是由竹中公司做过PRADA 表参道大楼的队伍整个转过来接手的，一支非常优秀的队伍。他们的态度就好像这种东西对我们来说小菜一碟，大伙都干劲十足。工地上弥漫着一种微妙的紧张对立，在那里感觉就是连个玩笑都开不了的氛围。所有配筋都是斜交而非直交。因为需要将水平筋与斜筋进行组合，他们用电脑作出了三维的动画，在现场边看边配筋。那时我看了觉得都做到这步了，他们也太棒了，都是优秀的工匠，混凝土也浇筑得很漂亮。
ITO： Right. I feel that the Mikimoto Building was an easier task， because there were many walls to work on. The TOD’S building was truly a hand-madepiece， very complicated. I was really amazed by the workers every time when I visited the construction site. The construction work was done by a teamfrom the Takenaka Company， who had just finished the PRADA Omotesando Building， a truly exceptional team. The complicated construction work seemedlike a piece of cake to them and everyone put on their best performance. The construction site had such a subtle tension that would not bear even onelittle joke. All the reinforcements were diagonal instead of orthogonal. In order to join the horizontal and diagonal reinforcement bars， they drafted 3Dcomputer graphics and joined the reinforcements by looking at the those graphics on site. When I saw that， I felt like： “this is unbelievable！ They are suchexcellent craftsmen！” And the concreting was also done beautifully.
FURUICHI： IT REALLY WAS. NOT TO MENTION THAT WAS AS-CASTFINISH CONCRETE ！ BY THE WAY， MR. ITO ALSO HAD BEEN INVITED TO DESIGN QUITE A FEW PROJECTS OVERSEAS. WHAT TYPE OF PROJECTS WERE THEY INITIALLY？
伊东∶大概是从90 年代起，在国外演讲的机会也多起来，逐渐地收到参加各种竞标的邀请。其实在那之前，也作过一两个小东西，最初的契机是巴黎Cognacq-Jay 的末期看护医院。业主偶然看到我们设计的八代老人之家的照片，作为尝试一下的考虑邀请了我们。让·努维尔是法国杰出的建筑师，他们四组和我们加起来一共五组参加了竞标。由于是远道而来的参加，同时这是个私人项目，我当时觉得在竞标中胜出的可能性很少。在做了方案介绍后很长时间都没有收到联系，正想着估计没戏时，突然接到业主亲自打来的电话说：好消息，祝贺你们中标了。然后开始了协商，最初主要是关于立面的设计，我们也构思了一些内容，带过去了两个方案。不料却迎头招来业主的一顿说∶干吗拿来两个方案，我们要看的是你们认为最想实现的方案。这话也不是责备我们的意思，我们却就这样退了出来，之后每月飞一趟过去汇报。归结成一个方案拿去后，业主那边是刨根问底，比如龙骨为什么要这么分枝等，问了很多东西也不接纳。结果这样的方案汇报反复了有三、四轮，大约过了半年的时候才说总算明白了，脸上也有了笑容。这时我们才知道∶原来国外的客户是这么热心，要自己将内容全部理解后才放行方案的。反过来，由于地处巴黎市内，通常都会有周围居民的反对，在召开居民说明会时，不管对方说什么，业主方都会回答这是第一好的，等于是业主站在前面支持我们。
ITO： I had received increasing lecturing invitations and various bidding competition invitations overseas since the 1990s. Well， in fact， I had done a couple of small projects before that. My first project abroad was the Cognacq-Jay Hospital in Paris. The client of that project happened to have seen the pictures of the Home for the Elderly in Yatsushiro I designed， so they invited us in the bidding competition， just to have a try. There were five teams in the bidding，including Jean Nouvel， an outstanding French architect. I thought that we had a very slim chance of actually winning the bid， because we came from faraway and the project client was from the private sector. We haven’t heard from the client for a long time after we submitted and presented our design. Iwas thinking we were probably out when suddenly I received a phone call from the client himself， saying： “Good news！ Congratulations！ You won the bid！”Then we started to discuss the details. At the beginning， we talked about the section design. We already had some thoughts， so we prepared two options and presented both to the client. Unexpectedly， the client questioned：”Why did you bring two options？ What we wanted is the most ideal scheme in your mind.” They didn’t mean to blame us by saying that， though. We just returned home to work on it and flew there to present the new design every month afterwards. After we combined the two schemes into one and presented it to the client， they asked many detailed questions such as “why did you makethe structure grid branching like this？” and they were reluctant to accept our design. So we did several more rounds of adjustments and presentations，until finally， after about six months， all the questions were cleared and we could see smiles on the clients’ faces. That was the time when I realized that foreign clients were so passionate about the projects that they would not let it go until they full understand everything about the design. On the other side， because the site was located within the city， projects usually would be challenged by the residents in the area. When we held community meetingsand presented our design to the residents， no matter what they questioned， the clients would just reply to them： “This is the best design”. The clients werestanding in front of us and defending us against all the challenges.
FURUICHI： That’s really different from Japanese government officials.
ITO： Totally different. In Japan， once the clients got negative feedbacks about the design， they would immediately tell us to modify it again. It’s really great what the French clients did for us.
FURUICHI： On the flip side， they must accept the design themselves first.
Z： The idea that they only wanted the best scheme is truly remarkable. Here in our country， the clients usually ask for more options. If we prepared two options to present， we would be requested whether we have any other options.
FURUICHI： Probably because of different cultural backgrounds and maturities. The French are usually quite knowledgeable about architecture design.
ITO： Moreover， in the community meetings， the client only brought the hospital president and another hospital consultant with him. Just the three of them made all decisions. Opinions from the other hospital staff members， the pharmacists， nurses and the others had already been collected and briefed to the hospital president， saving us lots of time on communications with them. I think， to this end， the French are a really mature society.
FURUICHI： ANOTHER IMPRESSIVE DESIGN OF YOURS IS THE FORUM45 IN GHENT， BELGIUM. THAT WAS ALSO A VERY BRILLIANT DESIGN！
ITO： Well， about that design， I guess even the judges didn’t fully understand its contents.
FURUICHI： In these bidding competitions， how did you organize the work flows in your firm？ I once watched a special NHK program on how your team participated in a bidding competition in Denmark and found it very interesting. Can you please talk a little bit more on that？
ITO： Usually most people would like to participate in bidding projects. A team is made up of five or six people， who of course also need to work on other projects at the same time. At first， the junior staff members would conduct the analysis of building functions. Then we made decisions on the scale and the contents of the building， based on which we organized the space design. Everyone was on the same page in this process. Then we would do somecase studies on similar buildings and hold meetings on the themes of our design. Generally I would first propose some ideas or give some hints. The teammembers then drafted their own schemes independently under these fixed conditions. Their designs usually would need a few rounds of adjustments，during which time I also drafted my own scheme. Everyone in the team and myself are all working and thinking independently during this whole process.
FURUICHI： So everyone is equal？
ITO： Yes. Although generally my scheme is better than the others， they would also provide some interesting ideas. So the whole process started frommaking decisions on the general directions， which then developed into diverging design ideas， and then consolidated back into one design again. It justwent back-and-forth like this.
FURUICHI： So Mr. Ito always plays the role as the general director？
ITO： Pretty much. In each round， we developed the design as we made several small models， which was the most exciting phase to everyone. Then finally，at last， we decided which scheme to use. During the entire process， we also negotiated with the structure and equipment engineers and decisions weremade during those negotiations. It would be easy to decide on the final scheme if the whole process went smoothly. Reversely， it would become quitefrustrating and even rather painful sometimes， when we could not come up with the final design after repeated modifications.
FURUICHI： At the finishing moment， would you have that feeling like “that’s it” or “not quite there yet”？
ITO： Absolutely. We’ve had all kinds of situations and all kinds of feelings.
FURUICHI： Really！ When you felt “that’s it”， you most likely would win， I guess？
ITO： Sort of. For me， I would also feel really good at times like that. For example， when I did the Sendai project， I had a strong feeling that the design
definitely would work.
FURUICHI： FOR OVERSEAS PROJECTS， YOU MENTIONED THAT THEY MAY BE TIRESOME. HOWEVER， FOR PROJECTS LIKE THE TAICHUNGMETROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE， YOU WERE ALLOWED TO DESIGN WITH YOUR WILDEST IMAGINATION.
ITO： The Taichung project narrowed down to a one-on-one duel between me and Zaha Hadid at last. Luckily， we won. I think Taiwan is a quite unique place.That project was a government project， assigned by the City Government of Taichung. It is quite rare in Taiwan to have projects assigned by higher-levelgovernment bodies. Instead， most of the public projects are assigned by city governments. As the four major cities in Taiwan， Taipei， Taichung， Tainan，and Kaohsiung are quite competitive against each other. So the City of Taichung was very excited to prepare for such a grand project. I guess it was partlybecause of their passion for grand projects that my bold design idea was well-received by them. The mayor was really pleased and thought my design wasexactly what they wanted.
FURUICHI： It is very satisfying for an architect to receive such high praise. However， the situations in Japan are just the opposite.
ITO： The Japanese are now inclined towards playing safe and avoiding any problems.
FURUICHI： Not looking forward， but looking backward. In Taiwan， they are looking forward.
ITO： The Mayor of Taichung City is very passionate about opera. He even invited one of the three great tenors， Plácido Domingo46， to perform there.But they didn’t have a venue for opera performances， so they could only hold a few private rehearsals every now and then. Because of that， he had thethoughts of building an opera house.
FURUICHI： Which phase is this project now in？
ITO： They have almost finished the structure now.
FURUICHI： And the general building form has already shown？
ITO： The lower scaffold has been taken down already. The next phase is building decoration and equipment engineering. They have already starteddecorating on the lower part.
FURUICHI： It must be really brilliant after completion.
ITO： After the scaffold was taken down， though still in a coarse form， the building does look quite powerful.
FURUICHI： What other overseas projects are you working on right now？
ITO： Mostly in Taiwan and Singapore. In Taiwan， we also did the campus design of the School of Social Sciences at Taiwan University. The buildings havealready been constructed and are expected to open next year. They are setting up the furniture right now. Another project is the redevelopment of the oldtobacco factory in Songshan. While preserving the old buildings， there will be a mixed-use building， including offices， hotels and retail facilities.
FURUICHI： Which phase is this project in？
ITO： Almost finished. The opening ceremony is yet to come， but they have already started to hold various events there.
FURUICHI： What about your projects in Singapore？
ITO： In Singapore， I’m involved in a 245m tall office tower project， which is going on right now.
FURUICHI： Is that the project called “CapitalGreen”？
ITO： It is. It’s gradually building up and has to be completed in about one and a half years. I also designed the Ressidental Hall at Nanyang Drive forNanyang Technological University and a high-end residential project by a private developer in Singapore as well. 古市∶现在您在新加坡也有事务所吗？
FURUICHI： DO YOU HAVE A BRANCH OFFICE IN SINGAPORE AS WELL？
ITO： We don’t. Our staff members take turns to go back and forth between the sites and our office in Japan， about three people each time. There are manyforeign architects working in Singapore. Our communications with clients are fairly easy， because it’s an English-speaking country. Also， we are used towork together with local design firms there， so the projects could go on quite smoothly. In terms of communications， it’s more difficult in Taiwan， thus wehave several employees working there full-time.
FURUICHI： How many foreign employees do you have in your firm？
ITO： We have only one right now. Although many Japanese design firms hired foreigners from Europe and America， I still feel that the ways of thinking arequite different between us. On one hand， there are many talented designers from abroad. On the other hand， however， because of the limitations on ourlanguage abilities， it’s quite difficult to communicate with each other very efficiently.
FURUICHI： How many employees does your firm have now？
ITO： About 40 people in Tokyo and a few more in Barcelona.
Z： As you have a few projects going on in Taiwan， did the clients ask you to set up a branch office there？
ITO： No. The project can proceed smoothly as long as we work closely with the local firms. We did set up a branch office in Barcelona， but had somedifficulties afterwards.
FURUICHI： There are many Japanese firms setting up offices in Singapore. Although it’s not easy， I heard the tax policies would be quite different there.
Z： Hong Kong used to be the hot spot. Now everyone goes to Singapore.
ITO： Yes， it’s the similar situation in Hong Kong.
FURUICHI： NOW IF WE MAY CHANGE THE SUBJECT A LITTLE BIT， MR. ITO， YOU HAVE TALKED ABOUT ENVIRONMENTALISM RECENTLY. THEPROJECT IN GIFU IS AN EXAMPLE OF SUCH THOUGHTS， ISN’T IT？ CAN YOU SHARE MORE DETAILS WITH US ON THAT？
ITO： Sure. From when I designed the Sendai Mediatheque until very recently， my design has been in a large part trying to create some sort of powerfularchitecture， especially to demonstrate the structure and the form as a whole. Next， I want to try taking into account the aspect of equipment a little bitmore. Through discussing with equipment engineers at the very beginning of a project， we can work on the design while testing repeated simulations，especially on the issues about energy use. I want my design to reflect my thoughts on energy-related issues such as ventilation and lighting. That is thetopic I plan to conduct some research on in the next couple of years. Nevertheless， the equipment engineers are not so used to work with us on thesetopics， so it’s not as smooth as what we used to work on structure engineering yet.
FURUICHI： In Japan， we have a long history of educating structure engineers and there are many talented professionals， while good equipment engineers
are relatively rare.
ITO： Well， most of the good equipment engineers work at the overall contracting companies. Only a few work at independent design firms. In my recentproject， the Gifu Convention Center， we collaborated with ARUP Japan. In that project， we modified the design while studying ventilation. That was my veryfirst time to work that way.
FURUICHI： There are many advocates for environment awareness due to the global environmental issues nowadays. There have been drastic weatherchanges in Japan as well. We’ve see tornados， tsunamis， and it’s getting really serious. Newspapers also frequently report natural disasters and describethem with extreme terms such as “largest ever”， “first ever in observation history”.
Z： We have seen a few “once-in-a-hundred-years” weather conditions in this year already.
ITO： Exactly. The environment has changed dramatically.
FURUICHI： So， given such circumstances， maybe the major concern in architecture would shift to the equipment issues？
ITO： I think so. Also， I always feel that the Western European architecture design tries to make nature and architecture separated from each other. They regarded architecture as the part independent of nature， however， we should establish different orders within architecture. From a historical perspective，that different orders partly became sort of the definition of architecture. In comparison， in Asia， especially in Japan， the architecture tries to open to thenature and to be integrated with nature. Maybe this is partly due to the warm weather here， but such thoughts had been well-received in the old days. Nowit’s the time for us to think about energy-saving through the openness to the nature again. I think this idea suits us and we can achieve comfortable livingby applying it， so I want to study this topic and do some experiments.
The full name is called “Forum for music， dance and visual culture”， Toyo Ito’s entry in a design competition of a performance hall in Ghent in 2004.
Plácido Domingo， born in 1941 in Madrid. As one of the world-famous Three Great Tenors， Domingo has won nine Grammy Awards.