- 来源:建筑创作 smarty:if $article.tag?>
- 关键字:伊东丰雄,建筑,日本 smarty:/if?>
- 发布时间:2014-04-11 12:49
FURUICHI： THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE ASSUMES THAT HUMAN KINDS DOMINATE THE NATURE. IT’S A THEORY THAT HUMAN-CENTERED SOCIETYWILL EVENTUALLY CONQUER THE NATURE. HOWEVER， ANIMISM IS MORE POPULAR IN JAPAN AND ACTUALLY IN ALL ASIAN COUNTRIES INGENERAL. OUR WORLDVIEW IS THAT EVERYTHING HAS A SPIRITUAL ESSENCE IN THE NATURE， A VIEW THAT WE NEED TO RESPECT NATURE ANDCOHABIT WITH NATURE.
ITO： I had that feeling when I visited Bhutan with you. Humans and animals all live in the nature. When a cow walks in the middle of a street， our car needsto stop and wait for it to pass. The cow looks more powerful at that time. And the dogs lie everywhere. That makes realize that humans are only very teenytiny beings， compared to nature.
FURUICHI： It is basically the idea of reincarnation. You can’t even kill a mosquito， because maybe in your next life you will become a mosquito.
Z： At the present times， we do need this way of thinking. In large metropolitan areas like Tokyo， I feel that the urban development is usually trying totransform nature. I think it’s high time to reconsider this issue.
ITO： That’s right. The modern times were built on the idea of transforming nature. We should reevaluate this right now. Therefore， thinking about energy issues from old Asian wisdoms is not only suitable to us， but it can also help us create a happy society in the future. We need to work hard on this issue， and the Gifu Media Cosmos could be seen as the first step.
FURUICHI： After the earthquake in the northeast Japan， Mr. Ito designed the “Home-For-All” project under the theme of interpersonal relationship. Couldyou please talk about that？
ITO： That was something that extended from what we just talked about. Instead of conquering the nature， as is advocated by the modernism， I think wemust use an alter native logic to think about architecture and cities. During my thinking process， the tsunami hit and then the 311 earthquake struck. Whereare we leading the affected region with the redevelopment after the earthquake？ The revitalization plans of national and local governments， which plan tomove everyone onto high lands， are obviously based on the modernistic thinking. They think safety is the highest priority. It’s true that safety is important，but does that mean we should abandon the nature we have cherished， abandon the history we have built， abandon all the culture legacies we have established in the region and just move to the highlands？ I don’t think so. I think that we could build livable cities while inheriting all the historical relics. It’ssimilar to the case of public buildings： modernism and our cities， regionalism and our families， they are dialectical. In order to study this issue deeply， I havebeen traveling between the stricken areas.
FURUICHI： HOW DID YOU PARTICIPATE IN THE REDEVELOPMENT？
ITO： I was most deeply involved in the Kamaishi City in the Iwate Prefecture. We have drawn various revitalization plans for the area， though not all ofthem could be realized. The key is to make the city government and the residents understand that not only do we need a revitalization plan， but we needto build cities that are open to residents. And finally we set up the Future City program in Kamaishi and organized bidding competitions for the design ofseveral projects， including residential buildings and schools. I served as the chairman of the judging committee of all those competitions， which offeredgreat opportunities for energetic young designers.
FURUICHI： What about other stricken areas？
ITO： We have the “Home-For-All” project in other stricken areas.
FURUICHI： Where exactly？
ITO： Besides me， Ms. Seijima Kazuyo and Mr. Riken Yamamoto have also participated in this project. We have already finished nine residences， whichare located in the Miyagi and Iwata Prefectures， respectively. There is a new one building in the Fukushima Prefecture and a few more will be completedlater this year until the spring next year. All these “Home-For-All” residences were built within the temporary housing units， which are different fromthe temporary housing built under modernism. Rather， these are miniatures of the ancient-style wood-structured residences， very comforting space forresidents. When we heard that the residents at the temporary housing were very happy to have these facilities， we felt really happy as well. “Home-For-All”has truly become small communal homes.
FURUICHI： “HOME-FOR-ALL” HAS BEEN DESCRIPED A LOT ON TELEVISION， BUT WHAT SURPRISE US IS THAT THIS IS MR. ITO‘S DESIGN.
ITO： Even the people in my firm asked me：”Is it O.K.， Mr. Ito？ Just like this？” Fortunately， they all fully understand the design eventually.
FURUICHI： How did you come up with the name “Home-For-All”？
ITO： In English， there is a term “community house”， but that feels too insubstantial. I think probably everyone would come over if we name it “Home-For-All”， so be it.
FURUICHI： I see. Community house sounds like a government establishment， while “Home-For-All” feels more amiable and more usable， making people feelmore welcomed.
Z： Right. Communications are the mostly needed in places like that.
FURUICHI： If people shut themselves within the temporary housing， people would become even more isolated from each other.
ITO： Just like being autistic.
FURUICHI： Many people become alcoholic because of that and end up being intoxicated and addictive to alcohol， which then becomes a social problem.
FURUICHI： With places like the Home-For-All， people would gather together with the hope of getting interpersonal contacts， just like animals.
ITO： That’s right. After the Home-For-All opened， people can go there and have a drink together if they want， where they could chat with each othercasually. The increasing of social opportunities relaxes people’s minds.
FURUICHI： Relaxed mentally. These various projects Mr. Ito is working on are towards a new direction， I think. Can you talk about your visions of the future？
ITO： I grew up in a period when the so-called modernism was pervasive in Japan and studied architecture in a system like that， so I was largely affectedby it. Right now， at home and abroad， not just in Japan， all the young designers in Asian countries， including generations much younger than mine， aredesigning architecture within the framework of modernism. Given that situation， it’s definitely unlikely for them to think positively about the humannaturerelationship issue we just mentioned. For example， in their minds， thinking about nature merely means landscaping on the balcony or green roofs.In fact， it goes far beyond that. I think we need to adopt the idea of entirely unifying our life and nature， and to make architecture designs that are basedon Asian religious beliefs like Buddhism and reincarnation. I hope that we can think about these issues together with the young generations. However，when the young designers are eager to become world-famous， their designs are inclined to be modernistic， simplistic， and abstract architecture. I think it’snecessary to shovel off this idea. I want to say that the era of modernism has passed and now it’s a different era. Because of that reason， when I worked onthe Home-For-All project， I designed a residence with simply a single shed roof and were criticized， saying： “This is far from pretty， incomparable to whatyou have done before.” However， if you include the Gifu project I did in all my designs， what I have been thinking hasn’t changed much. Therefore， I haven’tdecided yet on what my new architecture would be like. I’m still at the starting line， prepared for changes as I create new designs. At least， I may say thatwe are all equal at this stage. Especially， the young generations will play the leading role in the future. I hope that they can open up to the new ideas in thenew world， throwing away the temptation to absorb or pursue European traditions. We still need to work on that.
FURUICHI： In some countries like China， there are people advocating for creating this kind of new world and creating vernacular architecture rooted in
nature， such as Mr. Shu Wang.
ITO： That’s right. If we have more people like him， the situation will start to change， little by little， until it reaches the degree that brings us a fundamental revolution.
FURUICHI： These words mean a lot to our readers in China.
Z： China is under rapid development and lots of projects have showed up in a very short period. Under such circumstances， maybe most architects arecompeting for creating new building forms. What they are concerned about architecture design is whether they can think of more innovative building shapes.
ITO： Yes. I’ve been to Beijing many times a couple of years ago and talked with some young architects there. Some of them bragged about how manyskyscrapers they’ve designed， but is that the right way of doing architecture and the right attitude towards designing？ When I told the story to the youngdesigners back in Japan， they felt very pity about those projects. If these people in China who have the opportunities to do these projects can play acentral role， maybe we could see changes sooner in China than in Japan.
FURUICHI： Recently， there have been many young architects in China who work in studios， in their 20s or 30s. Many of them are going in a different
direction from that of the last century.
Z： I’ve heard many voices of introspection from college students in architecture departments. The described the massive number of skyscrapers in Chinaas： “too much， too dull， and too boring.” They are eager to see more humanistic elements in cities and buildings.
ITO： I think that’s exactly where new ideas will come out.
FURUICHI： IF YOU MAY， PLEASE TELL US MORE ABOUT THE ITO ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL.
伊东∶好的。正好是在311 震灾那个时候，今治市在濑户内海的大三岛上建了我的建筑博物馆。这事本来和我也并非有缘，是偶然我在那里设计了一个艺术博物馆，那个业主提出把它作成我的博物馆。在和业主交往中说这说那的，我说了刚才提到的那些话，在说到我希望建一所能和年轻的建筑师一起思考今后的建筑的私人学校时，他便说那么这个大三岛的建筑不用作成我的东西，干脆作成你的博物馆好了。然后他便把这个博物馆捐给了市里。设施的运营由市来作，市里也觉得这是个好主意所以就同意了。不过倒是我觉得在那里创建私人学校也够麻烦的。主要是去的很麻烦。于是我就想∶要这样的话，干脆在东京也作一个，将两个设施互联起来说不定能实现某种有意思的成果，于是我又在东京设立了ＮＰＯ  法人。正好这个ＮＰＯ设立起来的时候，发生了311 事件。于是，第一批的学生在当年四月聚集起来后开始了ＮＰＯ活动，他们马上去了灾区，这就是对釜石的复兴规划的研究的开始。今年是第三年，学生们已经能够通过自主的思考，边和岛上的人沟通边探求那个大三岛的开发，希望为小岛的开发贡献力量。实际上成果也正逐渐呈现出来。之后我又创设了可以让小学生来思考建筑的儿童建筑学校，这个也在逐渐发展。
ITO： Sure. It’s around the time of the 311 earthquake， when the Toyo Ito Museum of Architecture was built in Imabari City， on the Omishima Island of theSeto Inland Sea. This wasn’t my idea initially. I just happened to design an art museum and the client proposed to make it a museum of my architecture. Itwas during my conversions with the client， I mentioned those things I just talked about. And when I mentioned that I hope to build a private school whereI could think about the future architecture with young architects， the client said， “Well， why don’t we make this Omishima Museum your architecturemuseum， then？” Just like that， he donated the museum to the city and the city will be in charge of its operation. The city government also thought itwas a great idea， so they happily agreed. However， I felt it would be quite inconvenient to have my private school built there， especially because it’s quite inconvenience to travel there. So I thought to myself， well， maybe I should have another school in Tokyo and combine them together， which might make some interesting achievements. Therefore， I established the nonprofit organization47， ItoJUKU， in Tokyo. Then the 311 earthquake struck Japan. So the first cohort of the students gathered together in April of that year and started the NPO activities. They traveled to the stricken region， which marked the beginning of our study on the revitalization plan of Kamaishi. Now it’s the third year of the school， the students have already been able to think independently and to explore the development plans of Omishima while communicating with the island residents， with the hope to contribute to the development of the island. In fact， the achievements are gradually showing up. After that， I also established a children’s architecture school， which allow selementary school students to learn about architecture. This is also expanding steadily.
FURUICHI： How many people are there in your schools？
ITO： Each of the two schools has about twenty or so. Also， we have about two hundred members in the assembly group， which is going to invite Mr.Furuichi to give us a lecture on Bhutan. I also started a small studio in Ebisu， where all the students and members can come to attend lectures and makeconnections. That will be my base of organizing the events at my architectural schools.
FURUICHI： This kind of things has never been done by any architect before. Everyone was just doing their own businesses.
ITO： That’s right. Even Mr. Isozaki said， “Since when did Ito start to care about these young men？”
Z： This is very important for educating the architects of the next generation， though.
FURUICHI： My advisor， Mr. Tange frequently mentioned that we must think about the next generation. Besides being a great educator and teacher， Mr.Tange also made lots of efforts in establishing the new Japanese Institute of Architects (JIA).
ITO： We were all called for by Mr. Tange to join JIA， but we were still young and immature， without many projects at hand. It’s like we were not ready toopen our own shops yet， so just work as a street vendor. So I felt it was too early for me to join a professional organization like JIA and argued with Mr.Tange. I guess Mr. Tange got really angry with me. If it were now， I would definitely devote myself into it. Mr. Tange probably thought that our generation，like Mr. Ando and myself， was easier to persuade than those of the earlier generation like Mr. Isozaki and Mr. Hara48， so he invited us all over.
FURUICHI： It’s the sense of mission. Just like what motivates Mr. Maki to comment on the New National Olympic Stadium. It’s one of the importation socialresponsibilities to make comments and suggestions.
ITO： I agree. About that， after we came back from Bhutan， I went to Amakusa49 the very next day. When I watched news in the morning， it was broadcastedas the breaking news .
FURUICHI： Asahi Shimbun also reported it on its website.
ITO： The media were all concerned abo-ut it.
FURUICHI： I think architects sharing their opinions to the public and Mr. Ito’s events at architectural schools both have similar social benefits.
ITO： I think so. Starting from the revitalization of the stricken region in the northeast， I will organize a symposium on thinking about future cities. One of the events will be inviting Mr. Furuichi to give us a lecture on Bhutan. If we only concerned about the safety issues in the stricken region and make the revitalization planned in a modernistic way， just like what we discussed， it would be a great pity！ I hope we could tackle this issue with other alternative thoughts.
Z： LASTLY， COULD PLEASE SAY SOMETHING TO THE YOUNG ARCHITECTS IN CHINA？
伊东∶中国年轻建筑师们现在都开足马力工作着。接下来作为下一步应该是交接给下一代的工作，希望那时这批人能再次带着全面的眼光、站在亚洲的视点上、基于与自然的关系来共有下一代的建筑。20 世纪是被西洋、特别是被欧洲近代主义所主导的时代，如今只有亚洲具备建设有意思的建筑的可能性。在这个意义上，这回应该是从亚洲，由我们来发表观点，并将这些思维影响到欧洲，我想已经进入创造这种建筑思想的时代了，我是很期待中国的年轻人努力作出成果来的。明年，在熊本的Art-Polis 将会举办由熊本县主持的亚洲建筑会议。准备在那里以大学为单位，邀请几个比如新加坡、泰国等的大学团队，在熊本举办一个像“所有人的家”那样的方案竞赛。知事非常支持，已经将这个计划向好多人作了介绍，最后当选出来的最优秀作品将在熊本实际实现出来。
ITO： The young architects in China are all working very hard. The next step， I think， should be us handing over the job to the younger generation. I hope that these people would share the next generation of architecture， with a holistic view， with an Asian perspective and based on a relationship with nature.The 20th century was an era dominated by the western world， especially by the modernism in Europe. However， nowadays， Asia is the only place where interesting buildings could be built. To this end， now is the time when we should initiate our ideas and spread them to Europe. I do think it’s high time wecreate such architectural ideas in Asia. I am really looking forward to seeing the young Chinese architects to make great efforts and to come up with great works. The next year， the Asian Architecture Conference will be held in Kumamoto Artpolis， hosted by the Kumamoto Prefecture. They will invite several teams from universities in Singapore and Thailand to participate in a design competition， just like the “Home-for-All” project. The prefectural governor isfully supportive and has already talked to many people about a plan that the winning design of this competition will actually be built in Kumamoto.
FURUICHI： That would be really interesting！
ITO： Exactly. We may have many interesting discussions in the future.
FURUICHI，Z： Thank you.
NPO (Nonprofit organization)， is an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals rather than distributing them as profit or dividends.
Hiroshi Hara， born in 1936， is a Japanese architect and professor emeritus at Tokyo University.
Amakusa is a famous resort place， made up of a series of islands off the west coast of Kyushu and is under the jurisdictior of Kumamoto Prefecture.