从一棵树学到的

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:伊东丰雄,树,几何
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 13:02

  与我的办公室相邻的东京都青山医院被拆除了。虽然已经建了近40年但至今仍可以使用,看着这样的建筑物被残忍地打碎,渐渐地变成了瓦砾堆,真是让人心痛。

  就在拆除的过程中,有三个年轻的建筑师打算一起以出版为前提,进行一个虚构的项目。看着眼前濒死的建筑物被几台动力铲拆除,他们强烈地想要在这个遗址上构思某种建筑。这块地在涩谷站和表参道的中间,青山大街稍往里的地方。紧邻木制民房和小型公寓以及办公大楼,同时周围还有高层的高级公寓和联合国大学这样的大型设施。拆除的医院旧址(约18000平方米)大概会被大的开发商出售,变成高层公寓和办公室、商业设施。在东京市中心,由于住宅用地被再开发,出现了许多与周围不协调的高楼大厦。

  按照市场经济的原理,在持续着动态变化的城市空间面前,他们平常只有设计极小型建筑的机会,好不容易碰到了这片面积广大的土地,想在上面描绘自己的梦想也是理所当然的。对惨遭毁坏的建筑的无限思念,以及目睹毫无个性的再开发大厦的懊悔,一定激发了他们的这个想法。他们这三位对以经济为先的城市开发方式怀有不满,坚信东京可以有更丰富的一面。

  现在大开发商们采用的再开发的方法,无论是公寓还是办公室,都计划建成高层,为地面上省出绿地和公共用地的空间。这可以说是沿袭了20世纪前半期勒·柯布西耶在“300万人的城市”和“巴黎·伏瓦生规划”中提倡的追求绿色和阳光的都市规划理念。但是像东京的住宅地这样,土地是私有的,而且被细分的情况下,再开发的范围自然是有限的,而且大多数情况下还紧邻低层住宅群。在低层住宅群中突然耸起高楼大厦的这种不协调,在东京的市中心反复上演。

  难道没有跟这些低层住宅群更加协调的高层建筑吗?不是一个巨大的垂直的箱子,而是充分地让光、风和水渗透到里面的、有很多绉纹的建筑难道就没有吗?也就是说,难道我们不能构建一个密集的混沌而复杂的,但又与自然环境紧密相关的,像一个浓密的生命体一样的高层建筑吗?请试着想象一下,我们的项目从这里开始了。虽然乍一看是不现实的、毫无现实意义的,但这却是迈向21 世纪雄伟的城市和建筑的第一步。在一个处处以经济行为为先的世界里,我们最应该期待的是建筑师能够描绘出一个大视界,那就是“我们明天该住在哪里”。

  虽然我们一直在说环保型的建筑、生态化的建筑、可持续发展的建筑等等,但现在所做的大多不是朝着自然环境这个方向,而是在强化内、外的界限,构筑牢固的人工环境,然后在里面装备太阳能电池等。对于本来是动物一样作为自然的一部分、去感受自然的人类来说,这根本就是本末倒置。我们亚洲人以前一直生活在自然和建筑一体化的城市里。只要看看江户的旧地图和屏风画,就会发现村落是如何巧妙地随着地形和水流分布着。通过提高这种绉纹很多的分形城市的空间密度,能否达到高层化的水平呢?这是我们的课题。

  直面眼前的现实,开始具体地、且概念化地考虑时,他们一致想描绘的是一个“像树枝伸展的大树一样的建筑”。因为他们首先想到的是,在紧邻周围的低层建筑群和地上的树木中耸立着,面向中心地区逐渐高层化的金字塔状的形态。而且,如果想象着在地面上有像公共公园一样的开放空间,上面是枝繁叶茂的树木一样的错综复杂的空间,就会在脑海中呈现出一个像巨大的樟树一样的建筑。并且,这个联想绝不只是停留在形态上的推理。因为这种构想考虑到了,要参照树木储存能量进行成长的工作原理。

  一棵大树一样的建筑,到底是什么样的呢?我们去观察了大树,还听了树木专家的授课。通过调查研究我们明白了,很有趣的、而且令人意外的树木的本质。我们认为在某种环境中成长起来的树木,与其周围的植物有着微妙且深密的联系。那就是树木之间为了相互生存下去,存在着亲密的关系。虽然在树木之间确实存在着一种相对的关系,但专家说那只是作为结果的一种关系。也就是说,树木之间,各自为了保持自身的优势,都主张利己主义地生存,然后在这种相互的斗争中建立起了微妙的动态平衡。而这种关系不是刚好与资本主义社会中的国家、企业和人之间的相互关系极其相似吗?

  我们建筑师在构思建筑时,倾向于设计完整的理想形象。如果周围的环境杂乱无序,在某种程度上,就会计划去尝试建立一个与周边无关的自立的秩序。但是在自然界中如果一棵树要实现这种所谓自立的理想,就肯定会在转眼间自取灭亡了。无论多么想要利己主义地生活,树木也只能在群体关系中生存。

  这个事实可以说是我们在考虑现代建筑时的一个很大的教训。想想看,从一棵树中我们学习到的信息是很多的。例如,各个树木的形状,根据DNA的不同大概可以想象出来,但也有个别树的形状是根据与周边环境的相对关系,在其生长的过程中决定的。引导自身向更有利的状况发展,不断地反馈,灵活地应对环境。另外虽然整体形象是一开始就设定好的,但也并不是封闭的。它的生长对环境是极其开放的。并且树木虽然在不断重复着开枝散叶这个单纯的规则,但实际上却有复杂多样的秩序。在地面附近的分枝较大也较粗,随着越来越接近末梢,就会分得越来越细,而且这其中隐藏着无限重复的可能性。换句话说,具备分形状态。垂直地、或者水平地伸展,尽可能多地接收太阳光,积极地进行光合作用。像这样到处都重复着凹凸的表层,使得内、外,表、里的概念变得暧昧不清。一靠近大树下,就有一种被保护的感觉,让人觉得安心。但尽管如此,在这里却感觉不到与外界有内、外之分。

  一棵树具备的这些多样性,是我们在构思建筑时都应该参考的,是很重要的课题。其作为建筑课题可整理如下:

  ① 建筑必须在与环境的相对关系的基础上进行考虑。

  ② 建筑的整体形象并不是一下子就决定的,而是从一个大概的印象开始,通过反复地进行各种模拟而逐渐明确的。

  ③ 建筑应该在单纯规则(几何学)的基础上构成复杂的秩序。

  ④ 建筑的表层应根据分形几何学,使内、外的界限暧昧。

  ⑤ 建筑必须对环境开放。

  这些课题,无论哪一个都与20世纪的现代主义建筑的思想相对立。虽然,从自然到自立,在纯净、明快的几何学的基础上寻求功能性的现代建筑主义的原理,现在仍然支配着世界,但是我们终于脱离了它的支配,并且确信基于全新的原理也能够设计建筑物。为了将人类被麻痹的温柔的感受性和身体感觉从均质空间的束缚中解放出来,为了恢复充满活力的丰富的人类特性,我们会从一棵树中学到很多东西。

  The Aoyama Hospital beside my office in Tokyo Prefecture was dismantled. It was really a torture to see the 40-year-old building fully capable of utilization shattered in a brutal way and becoming debris.

  While this destruction going on, three young architects were just planning to conduct a virtual program for the purpose of publishing. Watching this dying building shattered by several shovels, they were strongly motivated by the idea of building something on the relic site. The plot is located between Shibuya Station and Omotesando, on the further side of Aoyama Street. On the one hand, it is adjacent to the wood residence, small apartment buildings and office buildings; on the other hand, it is also surrounded by high-rise apartment buildings, UN University and other large facilities. The site of the dismantled hospital (about 18,000sq.m) will probably be sold to a large real estate developer and developed into high-rise apartment buildings, office buildings or commercial facilities. Because of the re-development of residence-use land, a great amount of skyscrapers that fail to communicate with surrounding environment appeared in the downtown of Tokyo.

  Highly restricted by the urban space which is constantly changed based on the principles of market economy, most of the projects these three architects took on are very small. Now they have the chance to realize their dreams on this vast area of land. This is an opportunity that they never want to miss. Their passion must be stimulated by their deep yearing for the old building was being dismantled brutally and by their strong pity to see the redeveloped,

  featureless new buildings rising on the site. They are all unsatisfied by the economy-oriented urban development while truly believing in the

  ideal of a more charming Tokyo.

  Currently in redeveloping both apartments and office buildings, the major real estate developers all follow the plan of building high-rise buildings with green and public spaces arranged on the ground. This approach was inherited from the urban planning philosophy of Le Corbusier featured by the pursuit of green and sunlight, which was put forward in the early 20th century in his schemes of “the City for Three Million” and “The Plan Voisin”. Because there sidential land in Tokyo is privately owned and segmented, the lands that can be redeveloped are very limited. Besides, most of these land plots are close to low-layer residential clusters. In downtown Tokyo, the disharmony of skyscrapers standing prominently among the low-layer residential buildings appears repeatedly.

  Is it impossible for the existence of any high-rise buildings that can stay in harmony with these low-layer residential buildings? Is it impossible for the existence of any building that fully infiltrated by light, wind and water in different levels instead of a simple huge vertical case? That is to say, are we not able to build a dense, complex and chaotic high-rise building that is closely linked to the natural environment like a dense living body? The visualization of this idea initiates our project. Though it seems unrealistic and impractical on the first sight, in my mind, this is the first step towards the grand city and buildings in the 21st century. In an economy-oriented world, the most expected works of our architects is the blueprints about “where we should live tomorrow”.

  Though we keep talking about the environment-friendly, ecological and sustainable architectures, what we are actually doing is not trying to open up to the natural environment. Instead, what we are trying to do is enhancing internal/external borders, building solid artificial environment and installing solar panels in it. For human beings as part of the nature who try to feel and get involved with it, what we are doing is just upside down.We Asian people always live in cities integrated with nature and buildings. If we look at the ancient maps of Edo and the screen paintings, we will find out how smartly the villages are distributed according to the topography and water flows. Our subject is to investigate whether the standard of high-rise buildings can be reached or not through increasing the density of the multi-level fractal urban space.

  Facing the realities, they all came up with the same idea of “building like a tree with extending branches” in specific and conceptual consideration.What first comes to their mind is a tree in the shape of pyramid that stands out in the midst of neighboring low-layer building clusters and gradually rises towards the central. Besides, if we imagine the open space on the ground as the public park with complicated space like luxuriant trees, an image of a building as large as the camphor tree will be generated in our brains. Nevertheless, this imagination is not only deducted from the form, but also theactivities of the tree as a living body.

  What on earth is a tree-like building? We went to observe the trees and took the lectures from tree expert. By study, we understood the thoughtprovoking but unexpected nature of trees. We believe that the tree, growing in a certain environment, has subtle and close relations with the surrounding plants where intimate connections are provided to nourish its growth. Though there are certain oppositional relations among the trees, according to the experts,this kind of only present a result. That is to say, driven by self-interest, the trees would survive and establish a subtle dynamic balance in the competition against one another. Isn’t it similar to the relation between the state, enterprises and human beings in the capitalist country?

  When designing the architectures, we architects usually tend to conceive a complete and ideal image. The more chaotic the surrounding environment is, the more independent we’d like the building to be by trying to establish an order unrelated with the environment. However, if a tree wanted to realizethe so-called ideal of independence in the nature, it would perish very quickly. No matter how egoistic they want to be, the trees have to live with others in a group.

  This fact is actually a great lesson when we consider the modern buildings. Imagine how much information we can get from a tree. For instance,though the shapes of trees are usually determined by different DNAs, it is also subtlety influenced by their relationships with surrounding environment during the growing process. They guide themselves to develop towards the more positive situation, continuously get feedbacks and flexibly respond tothe environment. Besides, though the overall image can be set in the beginning, it is not isolated from the environment which is completely open. Despitethe simple rule of sprouting and branching out, the tree has more complicated and diversified orders to follow. The branches closer to the ground arealso thicker and become thinner in places closer to the end. Moreover, they were limitlessly repeated form of a fractal state. By extending vertically orhorizontally, they can receive the sunlight as much as possible and conduct photosynthesis actively. The surface with repeated concaves and convexevery where, blurs the internal/external and surface/inside concepts. Once you walk to the tree, a strong feeling of sheltered and security will emerge,with out any detection of the difference between internal or external environment.The diversification of tree is an important aspect to consult when we design new buildings. As a topic of architecture, we can reach the followingconclusions:I. The building must be considered on the basis of relative relations with the environment;II. The overall image of the building is not decided by a single matter. Instead, it becomes gradually clear by making repeated simulations;III. The building must form the complex order on the basis of pure rules (geometry);IV. In accordance with the fractal geometry, the border of external and internal spaces must be blurred in the surface of the building; andV. The building must be open to the environment.

  All of these topics are in contrast against the modernism architecture ideas in the 20th century. Although from nature to independence on nature, in seeking of the functionality of buildings based on the pure and bright geometry, the principle of modernism architectures is still dominating the world, it finally can be believed to be forsaken and a brand new principle will be applied in designing,. To liberate the human beings’ paralyzed gentle feeling and body sensing from the bindings of homogeneous space, and to resume the rich characteristics of human beings full of dynamics, we can learn a lot from a tree.

  文_伊东丰雄

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