- 来源:建筑创作 smarty:if $article.tag?>
- 关键字:伊东丰雄,树,几何 smarty:/if?>
- 发布时间:2014-04-11 13:02
The Aoyama Hospital beside my office in Tokyo Prefecture was dismantled. It was really a torture to see the 40-year-old building fully capable of utilization shattered in a brutal way and becoming debris.
While this destruction going on， three young architects were just planning to conduct a virtual program for the purpose of publishing. Watching this dying building shattered by several shovels， they were strongly motivated by the idea of building something on the relic site. The plot is located between Shibuya Station and Omotesando， on the further side of Aoyama Street. On the one hand， it is adjacent to the wood residence， small apartment buildings and office buildings； on the other hand， it is also surrounded by high-rise apartment buildings， UN University and other large facilities. The site of the dismantled hospital (about 18，000sq.m) will probably be sold to a large real estate developer and developed into high-rise apartment buildings， office buildings or commercial facilities. Because of the re-development of residence-use land， a great amount of skyscrapers that fail to communicate with surrounding environment appeared in the downtown of Tokyo.
Highly restricted by the urban space which is constantly changed based on the principles of market economy， most of the projects these three architects took on are very small. Now they have the chance to realize their dreams on this vast area of land. This is an opportunity that they never want to miss. Their passion must be stimulated by their deep yearing for the old building was being dismantled brutally and by their strong pity to see the redeveloped，
featureless new buildings rising on the site. They are all unsatisfied by the economy-oriented urban development while truly believing in the
ideal of a more charming Tokyo.
Currently in redeveloping both apartments and office buildings， the major real estate developers all follow the plan of building high-rise buildings with green and public spaces arranged on the ground. This approach was inherited from the urban planning philosophy of Le Corbusier featured by the pursuit of green and sunlight， which was put forward in the early 20th century in his schemes of “the City for Three Million” and “The Plan Voisin”. Because there sidential land in Tokyo is privately owned and segmented， the lands that can be redeveloped are very limited. Besides， most of these land plots are close to low-layer residential clusters. In downtown Tokyo， the disharmony of skyscrapers standing prominently among the low-layer residential buildings appears repeatedly.
Is it impossible for the existence of any high-rise buildings that can stay in harmony with these low-layer residential buildings？ Is it impossible for the existence of any building that fully infiltrated by light， wind and water in different levels instead of a simple huge vertical case？ That is to say， are we not able to build a dense， complex and chaotic high-rise building that is closely linked to the natural environment like a dense living body？ The visualization of this idea initiates our project. Though it seems unrealistic and impractical on the first sight， in my mind， this is the first step towards the grand city and buildings in the 21st century. In an economy-oriented world， the most expected works of our architects is the blueprints about “where we should live tomorrow”.
Though we keep talking about the environment-friendly， ecological and sustainable architectures， what we are actually doing is not trying to open up to the natural environment. Instead， what we are trying to do is enhancing internal/external borders， building solid artificial environment and installing solar panels in it. For human beings as part of the nature who try to feel and get involved with it， what we are doing is just upside down.We Asian people always live in cities integrated with nature and buildings. If we look at the ancient maps of Edo and the screen paintings， we will find out how smartly the villages are distributed according to the topography and water flows. Our subject is to investigate whether the standard of high-rise buildings can be reached or not through increasing the density of the multi-level fractal urban space.
Facing the realities， they all came up with the same idea of “building like a tree with extending branches” in specific and conceptual consideration.What first comes to their mind is a tree in the shape of pyramid that stands out in the midst of neighboring low-layer building clusters and gradually rises towards the central. Besides， if we imagine the open space on the ground as the public park with complicated space like luxuriant trees， an image of a building as large as the camphor tree will be generated in our brains. Nevertheless， this imagination is not only deducted from the form， but also theactivities of the tree as a living body.
What on earth is a tree-like building？ We went to observe the trees and took the lectures from tree expert. By study， we understood the thoughtprovoking but unexpected nature of trees. We believe that the tree， growing in a certain environment， has subtle and close relations with the surrounding plants where intimate connections are provided to nourish its growth. Though there are certain oppositional relations among the trees， according to the experts，this kind of only present a result. That is to say， driven by self-interest， the trees would survive and establish a subtle dynamic balance in the competition against one another. Isn’t it similar to the relation between the state， enterprises and human beings in the capitalist country？
When designing the architectures， we architects usually tend to conceive a complete and ideal image. The more chaotic the surrounding environment is， the more independent we’d like the building to be by trying to establish an order unrelated with the environment. However， if a tree wanted to realizethe so-called ideal of independence in the nature， it would perish very quickly. No matter how egoistic they want to be， the trees have to live with others in a group.
This fact is actually a great lesson when we consider the modern buildings. Imagine how much information we can get from a tree. For instance，though the shapes of trees are usually determined by different DNAs， it is also subtlety influenced by their relationships with surrounding environment during the growing process. They guide themselves to develop towards the more positive situation， continuously get feedbacks and flexibly respond tothe environment. Besides， though the overall image can be set in the beginning， it is not isolated from the environment which is completely open. Despitethe simple rule of sprouting and branching out， the tree has more complicated and diversified orders to follow. The branches closer to the ground arealso thicker and become thinner in places closer to the end. Moreover， they were limitlessly repeated form of a fractal state. By extending vertically orhorizontally， they can receive the sunlight as much as possible and conduct photosynthesis actively. The surface with repeated concaves and convexevery where， blurs the internal/external and surface/inside concepts. Once you walk to the tree， a strong feeling of sheltered and security will emerge，with out any detection of the difference between internal or external environment.The diversification of tree is an important aspect to consult when we design new buildings. As a topic of architecture， we can reach the followingconclusions：I. The building must be considered on the basis of relative relations with the environment；II. The overall image of the building is not decided by a single matter. Instead， it becomes gradually clear by making repeated simulations；III. The building must form the complex order on the basis of pure rules (geometry)；IV. In accordance with the fractal geometry， the border of external and internal spaces must be blurred in the surface of the building； andV. The building must be open to the environment.
All of these topics are in contrast against the modernism architecture ideas in the 20th century. Although from nature to independence on nature， in seeking of the functionality of buildings based on the pure and bright geometry， the principle of modernism architectures is still dominating the world， it finally can be believed to be forsaken and a brand new principle will be applied in designing，. To liberate the human beings’ paralyzed gentle feeling and body sensing from the bindings of homogeneous space， and to resume the rich characteristics of human beings full of dynamics， we can learn a lot from a tree.