- 来源:建筑创作 smarty:if $article.tag?>
- 关键字:白之家,,建筑,山本理显 smarty:/if?>
- 发布时间:2014-04-11 13:25
“中野本町之家”就是一个的雪白的空洞的圆环。光照进了白色的圆环，影子随之移动，就像只是为了这个光与影的白色空洞的圆环。这个作品象征性地表现出了伊东对于纯粹性的想法。这个住宅相对于外部是极其封闭的。是与周边的城市空间完全无关的一个完全封闭圆环。评论家多木浩二先生将这个空间称之为“白色的黑暗”（《形式的概念》，《新建筑》76 年11 月号）。的确它是与外部完全隔离得黯黑般的空间。被这个“白色的黑暗”所包围后形成的院子简直就像地下室的天井一样。实际上，这个建筑即使延伸进地下也是成立的。相对于周边的环境，它是如此的封闭，是一个几乎只靠内部空间来构成的建筑，即外面的世界是被排除在外的。
在之后伊东陆续发表的 “银色小屋”、“风之塔”、“八代市立博物馆”、“中目黑T 大厦”、“诹访湖博物馆”、“大馆树海体育场”等作品，都是以如何从这种“纯粹性= 封闭性的诅咒”中解放出来为共通的主题。这些作品，无论哪一个都被给予了很高的评价。但是我想对伊东来说，却未必会觉得十分满意。我觉得这些作品各自都带有极为鲜明的观点。这些观点既是针对时代的观点，也是针对现状的观点。我想这些作品都对那个时代或者现状作出了圆满的回答。但也是在牺牲了一点点伊东所追求的纯粹性后才获得的观点。针对这个时代，这个社会环境的观点的强度，由于它的强烈，使得作品变成伊东曾经批判菊竹“为了顾全与城市环境的关系，而牺牲自己的纯粹性”的那种结构。一边是对纯粹性的追求，一面是歪曲这种纯粹性的来自外部的各种因素，可以感受到这些作品在这两极之间摇摆不定。我想伊东那时还无法找到明确的答案。
观察伊东的思维斗争令我有所意识。“纯粹性= 封闭性的诅咒”其实是近代建筑本身所带有的矛盾。近代建筑的理论将空间定义为纯粹的。我们大多数人即使觉察到了这种矛盾，也会因为长时间地寻找解脱的方法而感到厌倦。即使空间的纯粹性因为来自外部的因素而被歪曲，不是采用去依从外部因素一方的方法，也不是采用停留在这种纯粹性里，取消对外部开放的念头的formalism( 形式主义- 译注)，更不是自己站在外面指手画脚的cyinicism( 嘲笑主义- 译注)，如何将自己的纯粹性作为一个具体的建筑来构筑，伊东在其实践的过程中发现了实现的方法。在抽象空间获得具体性的一瞬间，伊东在过程中的所有遭遇获得了结论。
HOUSE IN WHITE
Hearing that the “House in White” of Kazuo Shinohara was about to be disassembled and relocated， I paid a visit to it. The “House in White” was completed in 1966， some 40 years ago. As it is about to be disassembled， the furniture and lighting fixtures were all gone， and the whole house became an empty space， like a large hole. At the center of this space was an independent fir column. Close to this round column was just the snow-white wall.The white wall stretched all along to the high celling， so the wall seemed very huge. On the wall， there was a small door， and along the upper diagonal of the door， there was a smaller window. In such a design， even a slight change in millimeters will cause flaws. So， this design must come from a careful consideration. Of course， these scenes are commonly seen in pictures， but this was the first time that I saw them personally. Actually， to me， this work was not that appealing at first. However， after I heard that Mr. Toyo Ito always spoke highly of the “House in White”， I thought I must visit it anyway.
When I saw the round symbolic column standing close to the snow-white and huge wall， I understood how this building inspired Ito on earth and why Ito， who was just a beginner in architectural design then， was strongly influenced emotionally. In front of the hole-like space， Ito of that time and today’s Itooverlap perfectly.
What Ito saw was a highly self-disciplined space purely came from Shinohara’s heart， a holonomic space totally free from the various external limitations such as sociality， the relation with the surroundings， or the relation with life， or economy. The “House in White” was designed in Shinohara’sheart， only with the inherent theory and thought. Such purity has nothing to do with any other thing and excludes all external relations. For Ito， such a pure Shinohara-style space is very fresh. The space realized with inherent theory only and unrelated to various external factors seems very rational. Even though 40 years has passed， I still have such strong feelings.
I do understand why Ito was attracted by purity.
Forty years ago， architecture existed for life. In other words， architecture itself was part of a city， related to the daily life and the city. How to evaluate the daily life and urban environment， namely， to affirm it or to deny it， for architecture， was an evitable external factor. Architecture was actually based on the relation with the external factors. This view always dominated at that time. However， Shinohara explored the “Purity of Space”， totally upending this dominant view and providing a new possibility for architecture. Such purity struck a responsive chord in Ito. Ito resonated strongly on such purity.
From the very beginning to now， actually， from Ito’s designs， I think we can still see his deep desire to escape into such purity of space.
“In the design， I think I should center on my own thought as much as possible and work out the model unrelated to the client’s requirements.” “The onlything I can do now is to modify the initial design models according to the client’s desire on their homes formed based on the accumulation of life techniques，according to the social conditions such as budget， or laws and regulations， and according to the construction technologies or interpersonal relationship. Andafter the completion， I have to keep watching the attached or distorted tracks generating from dweller’s various requirements with concern and also regret.(Design Behavior is about Tracing Distorted Process of Thinking， first published in Shinkenchiku journal， October issue in October 1971)
This article was written by Ito in 1971 when he was 30 in which he expressed a strong feeling toward the” Purity of Space”. He believed that pure spaces have been distorted by various external factors， an opinion well reflected Ito’s obsession with the “Purity of Space” – something very individual without being effected by any external elements and something can only be obtained by individuals.
KIKUTAKE KIYONORI AND KAZUO SHINOHARA
After graduating from university， Ito went to work in the office of Kikutake Kiyonori who was known as a member of Metabolist school， an architectgroup aiming to study the dramatically changing cities and the development of architecture in the changing cities and to fundamentally explore therelation between cities and architecture. Kiyonori is generally regarded as a very logical architect devoted to reconstructing the relation between theurban environment and architecture. However， Kiyonori’s real image is totally different. “Through fragmental but inspirational drafts， he taught ouryoung people the new possibility of architecture and the pleasure of emotional design completely.” (Consulting Kikutake Kiyonori about How to MaintainPassion， first published on Architectural Culture July issue in 1975). In Ito’s eyes， Kiyonori is very emotional rather than rational with inspiration burstingout from within. It’s said he was crazily loyal to his emotional self. “No other architect is more fanatical than him” (Literature cited as above)， Ito said. Sucha fanatical Kiyonori was highly spoken of by Ito； however， later， when Kiyonori began to emphasize the relation with the society， and turned to the sociality school， Ito criticized Kiyonori a lot. Ito held that an architect should persist to his design from within and thoroughly realize the purity of design even ina fanatical way. However， Kiyonori thought differently. He was afraid that sticking to purity would isolate his architecture from the outside， making his architecture unsocial. “The creation of architecture must fully admit the contradictory society and human beings， as a result of which， architectural design will try to build orders and resolve contradictions” (Impressions of Modern Architects， Architecture April issue in 1965) After all， now that we live in asociety， we should build architecture under the influence of the society or on the premise of influencing the society. That is the Kiyonori-style architecture.
However， Ito was different. He thought that if the openness to the society caused the loss of purity in one’s own design， it was better to give up the openness. “Shouldn’t an ordinary social architect be fanatical？” Yes， he questioned Kiyonori， and at the same time， he questioned himself fundamentally.
For Ito， the very urgent issue was the relation between the purity of his own thinking and the external factors， urban and social conditions which have distorted such purity. Therefore， a contemporary of Kiyonori， Shinohara who holds that architecture should be more individual rather than social stimulated Ito more.
What cities should be built？ Or what is the situation of current cities？ The houses Shinohara built “do not comply with such issue， or do not respondto such issue” (On House， Shinkenchiku journal， April issue in 1967). Shinohara said firmly， “After all， architecture is just something based on my personal theory and thought from within.” “Obviously， I stand on the side of Mr. Shinohara. In the 1960s， the architects (like Kiyonori) firmly believed that architecture could be easily related to cities. Such view， I think， is still hard to understand” (Consulting Kiyonori Kikutake about How to Maintain Passion). By comparing the sociality of Kiyonori and the purity of Shinohara， Ito thought that the purity of Shinohara does not possess sociality； however， such purity should still be highly praised.
EXCLUDING EXTERNAL FACTORS
In fact， Ito’s architecture is a space purer than that of Shinohara， namely， an individualized space.
White U is a snow-white and hollow U-ring.Once the light comes into the white ring， the shadow also moves with it which seemed to be just for thewhite hollow U-ring. This work symbolically shows Ito’s thought about purity. This house is extremely isolated from the outside. It’s a completely closedring which has nothing to do with the surrounding urban space. Critic Koji Taki called it a “white darkness” (The Concept of Form， Shinkenchiku journal，November issue in 1976). Indeed， it’s a dark space totally isolated from the outside. Encircled by this “white darkness”， the courtyard looks like a part of abasement. Actually， it’s practical for it to extend downwards. Compared with the surrounding， it’s so closed that it nearly only relies on the internal space.In other words， the outside world is excluded.
However， it not just excludes the outside world physically. Actually， its thinking mode is also closed. If wanting to reflect one’s own inherent thoughton the architecture， namely， establishing an architecture that is loyal to one’s own thought， one must exclude the various thoughts of others. If not， theinherent nature of one’s own thought cannot be ensured. “In the process of design， I tend to center on my own thought as much as possible and work outthe model unrelated to the client’s requirements，” Ito expressed his concept like this. The concept of reflecting one’s own thought purely on the space is to exclude the outside influence opposite to this thought. The space built on the basis of this inherent thought is the “pure space”. Between this thought and space， a direct relation is established. That is to say， an entirely closed system is established between one’s inherent thought and the space， excluding the outside thought. Because of this， “the purity of space” can be achieved.
White U is isolated from the outside world. However， it does not simply exclude the urban environment physically. Actually， Ito’s thinking mode also excludes the external thoughts and the influence of others’ thoughts thoroughly. Excluding the urban environment is just the inevitable result.
Perhaps， from the experience of White U， Ito found the closure of space. Afterwards， how to break the closure？ How to break the closure relative tothe outside world while ensuring “the purity of space” is the biggest problem for Ito. If taking social school-targeted method like Kiyonori， as a result， one’s own purity will be lost. If taking the method of Shinohara to build a “pure space” which can only be acquired by oneself， the result is that one cannot go out of the closure. How to solve the problem is a question faced by Ito.
What to do？ Now， looking back the architecture of Ito， I think Ito’s exploring the essence of his works， namely， how to get free from the “curse of purity equals to closure” is the Ito’s architecture itself. Under any circumstance， Ito always takes this question as his subject.
A TOUR TO SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE
After that， Ito published Silver Hut， Tower of Winds， Yatsushiro Municipal Museum， T Building in Nakameguro， Shimosuwa Municipal Museum， OhdateJukai Dome etc. successively which are all doing research on how to liberate from the “curse of purity equals to closure”. Each of his works is thoughthighly of. But to Ito， he may not be very satisfied with this. I think， these works contain different and distinctive opinions of Ito to the age as well as the current conditions， and such opinions perfectly reflect the age or current conditions. However， they were acquired with the cost of giving up some of Ito persistence to purity. Those opinions reflecting the age and social environment are so powerful that they make Ito’s works Kiyonori’s structure that“sacrifice the purity to keep a relation with urban environment” which Ito once criticized. One is the pursuit of purity and the other is the external factors that distort the purity. These works swing between the two poles and， from this we can know that Ito didn’t find a clear answer then.
Such a thought on Ito has disappeared after I paid a visit to Sendai Mediatheque. From the design concept of Sendai Mediatheque to the completion of it， Ito deliberated himself from the thought of “cause of purity equals to closure” for the first time.
Before the publication of the design of Sendai Mediatheque， I once had a talk with Ito about his design concept. When talking about his epoch-makingidea， he was not as calm as usual； instead， he sounded joyful that I could feel his sense of achievement and expectation. “If this idea is not accepted…” His words were am biguous. But， his real meaning was “If my idea is not accepted by the examiners， their capacities must be doubted”. He was so self-confidentthat I still remain that confident Ito fresh in my memory. After then， I saw the model of Sendai Mediatheque. It was slim with transparency. Just like whathe said， it was an architecture we have never seen. Different with the column-beam or wall-type structure， it only utilizes the transparent shafts to support the floor. It can be concluded that it is definitely different from the network structure supported by columns whose utilization is decided by the structural system for the equally arrayed columns and the walls give orders to the utilization of floors. It means that the structural system and functions of a building are coordinated before its construction. But the Sendai Mediatheque is different. Its design didn’t give or hint a certain architectural function. Briefly， itsfunction was not set in advance. It is such a floor design. The design prioritized the burning desire of Ito in frame work which seemed to be realized. Thedesign was not made to meet external requirements， such as the requirements of sociality and urbanization， but to satisfy the pure design concept of Ito.But， can it really turn into a building？ In the examination process， whether it’s practical might be the biggest concern for the judges. It is totally differentfrom all the architectures we have seen so far. It completely achieves the purity of space and just because of this， the model looks so beautiful as if theglass- craft-like model can become reality.
If Ito has insisted on realizing this beautiful model， the result of the design wouldhave been completely different. The pure space would be distortedby various external factors. Could it bear those distortions？ If Ito had taken these into his consideration， then Sendai Mediatheque would be quite different from its current appearance. But， maybe the transparent glass-craft-like architecture can be realized. Even if it achieved the purity according to the original design， I’m afraid that it still will be distorted for various purposes after it came into service.
However， Ito had no regard for “whether it can bear distortions”. He didn’t want to achieve the purity according to the original design drawing butmore positively， he absorbed many external thoughts and many modes of thinking from the majority of people. At first， the voice of criticism was veryloud， saying if this architecture was merely a personal thing of Ito， there was no reason to construct such a personal architecture as a public one. Did this unprecedented architecture really have public character？ In Japan， most of the people still think that it goes against the publicity to add the architect’spersonality to the architecture faithfully. They think the architect should take most people’s advices and try to design standard architecture. Ito had several talks with those people. Those who opposed this design in the beginning started to accept it after knowing the thought of Ito and their advices were adopted by Ito. And this process was also an unexpected experience for Ito. Various external advices and various factors and those external factors may not distort the purity of architecture. I truly experienced that， sometimes， it is just the very externality which makes Ito complete his architecture more vividly and lively. These experiences fundamentally changed the deep-rooted thought of Ito.
How to open the pure space designed in mind to the outside world？ The hypostatic question raised by Ito turned to be a very specific question during
the realization process of Sendai Mediatheque. During the construction process of a building， in addition to solving all the architectural problems by
studying the construction methods， discussing the details and taking air conditioners， electricity and all kinds of equipment into account， it’s also needed to consider how to make the models， thoughts and ideas in our minds approved by other people， namely， make them resonate with other people at the same time. After communicating with other people and finding the answer with lots of efforts， Ito hence found that he should not stick to the purity consistently but need to review his concept to purity from another perspective， or the opposite perspective. If someone can observe from the opposite perspective， it means he is changing in the construction process. On the construction site of Sendai Mediatheque， Ito found he was changing as the construction progress for the first time. That was a thought totally different from Ito’s previous way of thinking， namely， the thoughts of pure space and external factors that distort the space.
“Only individual can get a pure space”， though the thought is radical， building construction will become meaningless if the spirit of insisting on purespace is lost. Even now， Ito still strongly insists on this point. The change that Ito gets from the experience of Sendai Mediatheque is that pure space canbe changed according to its relations with the outside world rather than the purity of space can be kept by opening it to the outside. In order to make thespace open to the outside world， namely， make it resonate with other people， he changed himself during the construction process. Besides， Ito has noticedthat changes are to enrich the content of buildings rather than distorting purity.
A pure space is a very personalized space designed in one’s mind. But， it’s actually a very abstract space which even can’t be called a building. The pure concept of pure space is an abstract concept. Doesn’t this kind of pure space exist when you imagine building a physical building that retains the original abstract shape？ I’m afraid it is not possible to complete a pure space as a building without accepting various factors from the outside world. This is the impossibility of “pure space” that Ito found from the construction experience of Sendai Mediatheque.
From observing the ideological struggle of Ito I realized that “The curse of purity equals to closure” in fact is a contradiction of the modernarchitecture itself. Space is defined as pure space in modern architecture theory. Even though most of us have noticed the contradiction， we become tired after looking for the way out for a long time. But Ito is not a person who insists on respecting the external factors after they distort the purity of a space，nor a formalist who gives up the idea of opening to the outside world totally， nor a cynical man who only takes actions himself in the outside. Ito took purity as a specific building， and then he found the realization method during its construction process. Ito made a conclusion at the moment when the abstract space was reified.
A reified building usually connects with the external factors such as its location， the time， history， territory and society. To make an abstract space obtain the reification， we need to take its inherent location， time， territory， society， culture into account， and associate with them closely. Although it is a bitrepetitive， it does not mean the purity of space gets lost. Instead， the process of looking for these associated factors is just the process that the inherence and purity in Ito’s thoughts are accepted by its location， time， history， territory， society and so on.