仙台之行

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:仙台,地震,建筑
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 14:02

  内藤广先生、山本理显先生、隈研吾先生、妹岛和世女士:

  从周五到周六,我先是在宫城县南部的白石市车站前边的旅馆里住了一宿,然后去了仙台参观仙台媒体中心和东北大学的工学部,同奥山市长见了面,然后由市里的工作人员带着参观了仙台新港和荒浜地区等海边的受灾地区。

  从仙台市中心的中央大街看去,建筑物受到的损害比较小,商店也在营业,好像什么都没发生过一样。但是,从到处都能看到的瓷砖剥落的大楼和几乎都是闭馆状态的公共建筑,其内部恐怕已经遭受了如天花板剥落、架子、隔墙倒塌等超出想像的破坏。

  仙台媒体中心的外面部分,除了面对着主街道的一楼的玻璃肋有破裂以外,没有其他损伤。在媒体中心的内部,三楼图书馆的双层幕墙内侧有1 块玻璃碎裂,还有在七楼(顶楼,放置着绿色的爱心手套的家具的楼层)南侧的部分天花板与荧光灯一起掉落下来了。

  虽然万幸的是没有人受伤、建筑物也只有一部分受损,但尽管如此,从市里的修建科进行安全检查并编制预算之后才进行修复到再开放,大概也需要一年以上的时间。总之,首先需要重建的是多达200 个的学校和保健设施,而教育设施是在其次的。修建科的该意见可以说也是合理的。

  然后是与生涯学习科的工作人员同席,并把我们的想法直接告诉了市长。我们这些东京的建筑师们和东北的建筑师们联合起来,希望将这里作为商量今后的重建的场所,我们希望媒体中心能早一天开放,哪怕只开放一楼也好。东北大学的小野田先生和艺术大学的桂英史先生也一同出席,并表示赞同。市长十分理解我们的意愿,并与我们约定在长假前,5 月1 号的时候,看是不是能够开放一部分。这次一同出席的生涯学习科的3 名工作人员,以科长为首都是女性。市长自是不用说了,对女同事们的迅速理解和不同于一般官员们的坦率,真是深感佩服。在这种特殊情况下,作为男性这么放得下还真不容易。

  即使只开放一部分,也还有许多问题需要解决,虽然前景难以预测,但如果顺利的话,大概5 月初我们就可以在仙台开始互相交流了。而且确定到时候市长也会出席。但是说到底这也只是私底下的谈话,所以还请大家千万保密。

  另外据小野田先生说,阿部、小野田、本江、塚本、小岛等约40 位建筑师都会参与,Archi-Aid 也在考虑向世界各地寻求支援,并投入到受灾地区的重建计划中去。那么,我想在仙台的第1 次的交流会由我们5 个人和与Archi-Aid 相关的建筑师们一起进行,大家的意见如何?当然我们也得协助着募集捐款。顺便说一下,我的事务所分别以伊东事务所的名义和职员们的个人名义进行了两次捐赠,都集中寄赠给了媒体中心。

  这次访问仙台市最让人感到吃惊的是,正在逐渐恢复元气和光明的市中心地区与海边受灾地区之间的落差。因为媒体天天都在报道,也没有必要再多说,但是仙台新港和荒浜地区的惨状不是用笔墨和言词能够描述的。

  在新港,普锐斯和雷克萨斯等近100 台新车就这么排成一列,已经被泡坏了。即使是跟翻斗车正面冲撞,我想也不会坏得这么彻底坍塌,车内都已被海水灌满。

  还有荒浜地区,简直跟原子弹爆炸后的广岛一样。放眼望去,满是瓦砾的荒原无尽地蔓延。

  我们在此期间有机会进到了仅存的孤零零的荒浜小学内部。海啸似乎吞没了四层建筑的二楼,一~二楼的地板上满是污泥。一楼之前好像是1 ~2年级学生的教室,孩子们说是由于能够在屋顶避难,生命是得救了。据说这些孩子们就在屋顶上眼睁睁地看着自己的家和家人被海啸冲走的情形。他们现在在避难所是怎样度过呢,光是想想就觉得很难过。二楼上,副校长一个人孤单地整理着泡在泥水中的资料的样子让人难以忘记。

  在小野田先生的带领下我们还参观了仙台市山旁边的东北大学工学部。在广阔校园的多栋建筑中,只有三栋被损坏至不能使用的状态。虽然从稍远的地方乍一看去,像是没有什么问题,但走近了就会发现这里发生过无法想像的大事。建筑专业所在的高层建筑里,在二楼和三楼之间四角的柱子上的混凝土已经剥落,露出了主筋和钢材,完全断裂,根本不能发挥柱子的作用,处于十分危险的状态。内部也是禁止入内的,因为如果再发生大的余震,就有可能会倒塌。登上漆黑的楼梯,稍微看了三楼的研究室,书籍和文件散乱着,可以想象当时摇晃得有多厉害。十几年前,我作为客座讲师经常来这里,所以是有很多的回忆的地方,如今发生了这样的事,真的是很遗憾。当然了,在校园里几乎看不到学生的身影。

  小野田先生和本江先生等在相邻的一栋建筑里一边用石油炉子取暖,一边忙着将不能用的教室安排改换到其他教学楼中。即使市内已经恢复了照明,但城市煤气还没恢复,他们现在似乎还过着不能洗澡的日子。

  虽然写的尽是些悲惨的情形,但是自市长以下、市里和媒体中心的工作人员们、还有小野田先生和本江先生,大家都冷静地干劲十足地行动着。也许是疲劳困乏了,再不自己做出明朗而精神的样子来作为鼓舞的话可能真坚持不下去了。

  看见大家这样的身影,又看到了荒浜凄惨的状况,感觉到现在不是沉浸在悲伤情绪的时候。我想已经是这样的杂乱无章,再不把各种事情开展起来可就糟了。

  对于被冲走的海边的村庄和城镇的重建计划,虽然也在犹豫这跟作为旁观者的建筑师是否相关,是否该插手政治和行政,但同时也在不断地转变思想,努力在不同的层面来参与到不同的问题中。

  因为跟中央机关有关系的内藤先生和隈先生也在,如果能够跟东北的建筑师们合作,我觉得就能够提出在某种程度上具有现实意义的方案,比如妹岛女士所说的在避难时放置干净的桌子和椅子的这种很小的建议也不错,另外,现在觉得没有实现依据的、理想化的其它提案也是可以考虑的。

  从1971 年开始了自己的工作室以后,新陈代谢主义者们的城市提案几乎已经无影无踪了,内向和抽象的时代至今还在继续。我觉得现在正是打破这些、恢复建筑师与社会关系不可错失的良机。

  这次震灾不是发生在神户那样的大城市,而是在渔村和农村,是令我思考这些事情的背景之一。

  这次受灾,即使算上核电站的事情,直接受害的不是都市的人们,而是每天面对着大海和田地生活的人们。特别是从事渔业的人们,尽管他们十分清楚大海是多么可怕的东西,却仍然离不开大海。

  无论我们提供了多么安全的城市和居住的方案,对于他们来说,只要不舍得大海,最终都会住回到原来的地方。面对这样的一群人,脑子里向来只考虑城市的我们,不得不大幅地改变迄今为止一直抱有的价值观。

  不是与数量化的抽象的自然,而是与不断变化着的本来的自然的关系,如果不从根本上重新审视这个关系,就无法向受灾的人们拿出提案。反过来说,无论是怎样虚构的提案,只要提出的城市和村庄的方案能够重新审视与本来的自然的关系,就可能成为有用的信息。也就是说这是对已经渗透到我们建筑师各个角落的、我们坚信着的现代主义思想进行重新梳理的大好时机。

  与市长见面时,奥山先生所说的很有意思。他说地震后原本露宿街头的人们突然变得精神了。现在大街上到处都是无家可归的人,那些本来露宿街头的人们利用自己的经验来帮助新加入这个行列的人们。也就是说,人与人,通过失去,可能只是一转眼就站在了一起。

  另外他还说到,没有汽油、没有公共汽车、也没有水……在这样的情况下,大家已经习惯了等待和排队。确实,我们生活在一个即使电车迟到一分钟也会不耐烦的社会里。日本享誉世界的高精度的交通技术、建设技术、通信技术等,虽然都是很先进的技术,但是这个精度的追求究竟为了什么呢?我想这次的震灾忽然间将追求这些所谓的先进技术的空虚性呈现出来。

  纷乱无序中,想到哪儿就写到了哪儿。但是这一瞬间,我感到大家能够放下个体、舍弃自我,团结在一起。我迫切地想抓住这个难得的机会做点事情。4 月如果大家都方便的话,我想能够安排1 ~2 次碰面的机会,大家觉得这个意见如何呢?

  Mr. Hiroshi Naito, Mr. Riken Yamamoto, Mr. Kengo Kuma, Ms. Kazuyo Sejima:,

  On Friday and Saturday, I lived one night in a hotel right in front of the Shiroishi railway station in the south of Miyagi-ken. Then I went to Sendai,visited Sendai Media Center and Engineering Department of Tohoku University, met with Mayor Emiko Okuyama. After that, the staff in the City Hall showed me to visit the new Sendai Port, Arahama region and other stricken areas along the coast.

  Seeing from the Central Street in downtown of Sendai, I could find the architectures were less damaged and the shops were still in operation. It seemed that nothing had happened. However, almost all buildings had their ceramic tiles fallen. Besides, the public buildings were almost closed with their interiors perhaps suffering from heavy damages beyond our imagination such as ceiling fall and collapse of scaffolds and partition walls.

  On the surface of the Sendai Media Center, there was no other damage except some cracks of glass rib arch on level 1 facing the main street. Inside the Media Center, one piece of glass was broken on the internal part of the double curtain wall in the library on level 3. Besides, some parts of ceilings fell together with fluorescent lamps in the south of level 7 (top level where the green Love Glove furniture was placed).

  Fortunately, nobody was hurt and only part of the buildings is damaged. Nevertheless, if the restoration waits until the Construction Section in Sendai finished the safety inspections and prepared the budget, it would take at least one year before these buildings are opened again. In short, the more than 200 schools and healthcare facilities should be rebuilt first before the education facilities. So the decision of the Construction Section is also quite reasonable.

  When having dinner together with the staff of Career Study Section , I told our ideas directly to the Mayor. The architects from Tokyo and those in the northeast would pretty much like the Media Center to be opened as soon as possible even for only one level, providing a place for us to share our ideasab out the future reconstruction. Mr. Onoda from Tohoku University and Mr. Eishi Katsura from Tokyo National University of Fine Arts were also present and gave their consent to the idea. The Mayor fully understood our wishes and promised to try the best to open part of the Media Center on May 1 before the holiday began. All the three personnel in the Career Study Section are females led by their section chief. Of course, the Mayor is also a lady who was deeply impressed by the quick understanding and frankness other than usual officials of women. In this special circumstance, it is really difficult for men to lay down it.

  Even if the Media Center is partly opened, there are still many problems to be solved. Though it is difficult to predict the future, we expect to kick offour exchanges in the beginning of May if everything goes smoothly. And the Mayor has confirmed her presence at that time. Because it was only the result of private talks, please keep it confidential.

  Besides, according to Onoda, Archi-Aid, the network of about 40 architects including Abe, Onoda, Honge, Tuskamoto and Koshima, is also considering to seek support from the whole world and join into the reconstruction plan for the stricken areas. So I think the first meeting in Sendai will be held by our five architects and those related to Archi-Aid? How is everyone’s opinion? Of course, we will also help raise the donations. By the way, my office has made two donations in the name of Ito Architect and the own names of the staff members, which are collectively sent to the Media Center.

  What surprised me most in this visit to Sendai was the huge gap between the coastal areas and downtown that is gradually recovering and resuming the power supply. Because the media reports are given almost every day, I will not waste time here. But the damages caused in new Sendai Port and Arahama region cannot be described by words or pens.

  In the new Sendai Port, nearly 100 new Prius and Lexus cars in lines were soaked and damaged. I think even if they had collided with cargo trucks,And the Arahama region was just like Hiroshima attacked by the atomic bomb. We could see nothing but the vast area of debris.

  they would not be destroyed as thoroughly as this, with sea water filled inside.

  We got the chance to visit the Arahama Primary School, which stood desperately and alone on the ground. The Tsunami seemed to have devoured thefirst 2 levels of the 4-floor building. Sludge covered the floors on level 1 and level 2. Level 1 seemed to have been the classrooms for Grade 1 and 2 students.By taking refuge on the roof, the kids were able to be saved. It is said that they could do nothing except standing on the roof and seeing their homes andfamily members taken away by the tsunami. How did they spend their time in the sanctuary? I feel sad even at thinking about it. I can never forget thescene when the Vice Principal alone was sorting out the documents soaking in the mud on the floor of level 2.

  With the guidance of Onoda, we also visited the Engineering Department of Tohoku University beside Sendai. Of the many buildings on the campus,only three were damaged and closed. Though they seemed intact from the distance, while walking closer to them, you would find out that someunexpected event had happened to these buildings. In the high-rise building where the architecture department is, the concrete had peeled off the columnson the corners between level 2 and level 3, exposing the reinforcing bars and steels. Totally fracturing, the columns were not functioning at all, sinking the building in extreme danger (also confidential).

  It was forbidden to enter the building because it was likely to collapse in the possible heavy aftershock. Climbing on the stairs in the darkness, Iglanced at the Research Office on level 3 and found the scattered books and documents. I could imagine how serious the swing was when the quakehappened. A dozen of years ago, I had been here as the guest lecturer and had a lot of memory about it. It is really a pity because of the earthquake. Ofcourse, I could see no students on the campus.

  Mr. Onoda and Mr. Honge had lit the oil furnace in a neighboring building to keep warm while moving the arrangements from the dangerous buildings to others. Even though the power supply was resumed in the city, the gas was not. So they seems still couldn’t have a shower or bath.

  In spite of the misery circumstances, the Mayor of Sendai, government employees, staff in the Media Center, Mr. Onoda and Mr. Honge were all working hard in a calm way. Perhaps they were so tired that they have to put up a vigorous appearance to cheer up, or else they probably cannot hang on any more.

  Seeing their busy figures and witnessing the tragic situation in Arahama, I felt that it is not a good time to be engaged with the negative emotions.With so many things out of order, it is very urgent to undertake proper actions before it becomes terribly mess.

  Though I still wondered whether the architects, as the bystanders, should think about the reconstruction plan for the flood-away coastal villages and towns, or whether I should get involved in politics or administration, I had to rack up my brains and try to participate in this discussion in different perspectives.

  As Mr. Hiroshi Naito and Mr. Kengo Kuma were also there, who had some relations with the central administration, I felt we could propose some practical plans. For instance, Ms. Kazuyo Sejima made very good proposals about placing clean chairs and tables in the sanctuary. Besides, some idealized proposals that were somewhat groundless were also worth considering.

  Since starting my own studio in 1971, urban development plans of Metabolism almost disappeared completely. But the era of introversion and abstraction is still going on. I think it is the perfect opportunity for us to make breakthroughs and resume the relations between architects and the society.

  Besides, the fact that the earthquake hit the fishing villages and rural areas instead of big cities such as Kobe constitutes an important background for me to consider these matters t.

  In this disaster and the nuclear station accident, the urban people were not directly stricken. Instead, those fishermen and farmers were more seriously attacked. In particular, the fishermen fully understood how terrible the sea is. But they have to live on the sea.

  No matter how safe urban and residence plans we have provided, unwilling to leave the sea, they will eventually move back to the original places.Facing these people, we, who only think about cities, have to considerably change our values that we have been cherishing.

  The relationship with the ever-changing original nature which is not something quantitative or abstract must be reviewed, otherwise we can never provide our plans for the stricken people. In turn, even the most superficial plans, if they can review the relations between man and the original nature, they will probably provide the useful information. That is to say, it is a perfect opportunity for us to rethink the thought of modernism, which has permeated into the mind of all architects.

  When meeting with Mayor Emiko Okuyama, what the Mayor said was quite interesting. He said the people who were formerly living on the streets suddenly regained their vitality. They shared their experience with and helped the newly joint ones. That was to say, people were becoming united in an instant because they had lost something.

  Besides, she also said people were now in the habit of waiting in queues for gas, public bus and water, etc. Actually we are now living in a society with busy pace of life. The highly-precise transport, construction and telecom technologies, which make Japan famous in the world, are very advanced.However, what is the pursuing of the precision for? For me, the earthquake suddenly uncovered the void of chasing the high-tech development.

  Perhaps what I have written here is not well organized because I just wrote down what I think. But at this moment, I feel that all of us have forsaken egoism, abandoned selflessness and got united. So I feel obliged and eager to take this rare chance to do something.

  What about meeting 1 or 2 times in April if we have time?

  文_伊东丰雄

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