“座·高圆寺”:为了建造有生命的剧场

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑,高圆寺,艺术设计
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 14:14

  即使没有参观过“座·高圆寺”的人,一提到这个剧场的话题,也经常说“啊,就是那个建在中央线旁边的黑色建筑呀”。从电车里看过去,会不禁想道“那究竟是个什么东西呢”,让人印象深刻。

  墙壁和屋顶都被涂成黑色,只有很多的小圆窗开着,这种外观给人很不寻常的印象,可是为什么会建成这种样子呢?说到这个建筑的必然性,就不得不详细地谈谈这个剧场的设计理念了。

  关于用地的特性和高圆寺这个街区

  高圆寺是很平民化的、很热闹的街区。既有很多老早就定住这里的老居民,年轻人也不少。商店街也都充满活力。但是“座·高圆寺”所在的用地环境却给人一种十分杂乱的印象。它离JR 的车站很近,周围都是住宅和小楼,还正对着中央线的高架桥,离7 号环线道路也很近。

  无论是向市民多么开放的公共设施,考虑到噪音和废气的影响,也不得不对外界封闭。另外,考虑到斜线限制和背阴条件,必须要尽可能地压低沿用地边界部分的高度。在这种情况下来考虑,构思了将体量的大部分设计在地下,开口部分较少的小屋一样的形状。另外,考虑到尾气等污染因素的影响,黑色调的外观会比白色更加耐脏,而且比起白色,黑色建筑的内部肯定更令人觉得神秘。

  在这种用地条件下诞生的,是带着强烈象征性的建筑形象,里面并不是很多个剧场,而是像黑色的帐篷小屋一样的戏棚。正因为高圆寺是平民风格的街道,所以用戏棚这个词就让人觉得更加和谐。

  由于正对着前面道路的开口有限,所以大厅入口和道具搬出入口是相邻的。虽然这样的布局是一般剧场无法想象的,但正是因为这样的设计,实现了入口大厅与座·高圆寺1 的道具搬出入口在同一标高上的流线组织,一切都是开放的,形成了一个如同室内化的广场一样的大空间。

  关于内容的特性,剧场综合体

  需要在没多少富余体量中综合布置3个剧场和3个彩排室的设计要求,使得平面布局变得极为困难。但是将约250个席位的同等规模的两个剧场,以不同规格标准进行组合这一点正是“座·高圆寺”的最大特点。一个是可以进行自由表演,但需要设置过程的可变型剧场“座·高圆寺1”,另一个则是拥有阶梯状固定座位的传统正面舞台型剧场“座·高圆寺2”。尤其是“座·高圆寺1”拥有21米见方的正方形平面,吊顶高度也很高(到网状格栅有9米),另外通过可动坐席单元可以对应布置成平台型、阶梯型观众席。在设计竞赛后马上开始导入艺术导演佐藤信先生的强烈的想法和要求,最终营造出了一个能够应对各种座位和舞台布置变换的空间。

  并列设置专门为表演艺术设计的、规模相同但用途不同的两个剧场,这种构想需要很大的勇气。但是在佐藤先生的决策下,各自都成为了独立完整的剧场。

  这两个剧场在地上与地下层叠,为了确保充分的隔声性能,使用了悬浮地板结构,在墙壁(高圆寺2 则在墙和天花板)上也设置了防震隔声层。在有限的空间范围内,做出了令人满意的效果。

  第3剧场,平台型的“阿波舞大厅”也为“座·高圆寺”的构成增加了特色。不同于其它两个剧场的氛围而形成明亮的色调。因为这个大厅体积较大,所以也适合举办爵士乐等音乐会。

  关于结构体的特征,钢板混凝土

  通过墙和屋顶的一体化所形成的抽象性体量,强化了不寻常外观的印象。为了强调抽象性,形体必须要有锐利的棱线,因此这个屋顶的形状是由多个圆锥面和椭圆锥面组合构成的。另外为了给人一种像膜构造一样的纤薄印象,必须在面上体现出紧张感。而最适合表现这种感觉的就是钢板。如果采用像“御本木银座2 号店”那样,在两张钢板之间填充混凝土的水平支撑钢结构,就能实现最薄且坚固的结构体。

  但是,另一方面,为了提高隔声性能,墙体和屋顶必须要厚重。在跟结构工程师、佐佐木睦朗先生商量以后,我们决定采用外侧带肋钢板(t=9毫米),内侧混凝土(墙面t=225毫米,屋顶面t=160毫米)的构造方式。在屋顶的稜线部分,为了搭桁架、浇注混凝土,将薄钢板(t=2,3毫米)作为定型模板用在下面,上面使用钢板(t=12毫米)。

  钢板在工厂加工好后,作为可搬运的部件运送到现场,在工地焊接成一体。

  我想由于将外墙作为结构体,更强调了建筑形体的强烈表情。

  关于内部空间的构成,洞窟空间

  由于地下部分占了整个面积的70%,向地下延伸了3层,如何设计出简单明了的垂直动线是关键。电梯当然是必要的,而在主门厅内部的大型螺旋楼梯发挥了将整体在视觉上连接起来的重要作用。

  这个楼梯的周围是整个内部空间里最让人印象深刻的部分。无数的小圆窗集中在这个楼梯的周围,自然光随着时间的变化,变换着表情照射进来。这些自然光和在扶手面上采用的圆形间接光的照明重叠起来,给人一种仿佛进入了地下洞窟的印象。特别是从地下二层往上仰望时,有一种深深地潜伏在地下的感觉。黑色外观的表情所酝酿出的“神秘感”在这个内部的空间里被进一步强调了。

  另外二楼的咖啡厅里也充满着从小圆窗照进来的自然光,虽然在地上,却有一种在地下空间的错觉。这个咖啡厅既可以作为工作时的会议场所,也可以作为小型演讲和音乐会的空间,还可以作为图书馆的多种用途的充满魅力的空间。

  从二楼到地下二楼是谁都可以自由出入的公共空间。虽然有着较强的、对外部比较封闭的性格,但是一走进里面,就是极为开放和连续的空间。沿着楼梯走过去,能够愉快体验到各种各样的有序的变化。“座·高圆寺2”和“阿波舞大厅”休息厅的空间还可以作为画廊来使用。

  家具方面,藤江和子女士设计了必要的设施内容。

  流动的饮料摊、售货摊主要设置在入口大厅和入口前的室外,演绎出剧场的热闹气氛。接待处、壁式传单台等由铁板制成,也结合外墙以及内壁的颜色予以上色,强调了与建筑的一体感。地下二楼的中庭中设有毛毯质地的休息凳,在这里仰躺下来可以一直看到中庭的上方。家具几乎都是成本极低的。

  虽然开放还不满一年,在为这个剧场而设立的NPO法人指定管理者和这里的居民的热情与全力努力下,剧场已经在高圆寺街区牢牢地扎下了根。令我感到非常欣慰的是,正在诞生的不是仅仅一个盒子般的东西,而是一个有生命的建筑。

  While talking about the theater, even those who have never visited ZA-Koenji would often say, “Ah, you mean that black building beside the Chuokaisoku?” Seeing out of the street car, one would be puzzled and wonder “what on earth it is”. It is really impressive, isn’t?

  The walls and roof are painted black with many round windows open. The appearance gives very special impression on the people. But why is it builtlike this? When talking about the necessity of the theatre, I cannot avoid the discussion about its design concept.

  ABOUT THE FEATURES OF THE PLOT AND THE KOENJI STREET

  Koenji is a busy and civic street. It has been inhabited by many old residents for a long time and there are also young ones living here, filling theshopping streets with full of energy. Nevertheless, the environment where ZA-Koenji is located gives the chaotic impressions. It is very close to JR stationsurrounded by residences and storied buildings. Standing to the viaduct on the Chuo kaisoku, it is also adjacent to No. 7 Circular Artery Road.

  No matter how open to the citizens the facilities are, they have to be separated from the external environment considering the impact of noisesand waste gas. Besides, because of the slanting line limits and shady conditions, it is necessary to lower down the height of the structures near the plotperimeters. In light of these factors, the theatre has been designed into a shed-like shape with most of its volume underground and only a few openings.Besides, considering the auto exhausts and other pollutants, the black appearance is better than the white one. Besides, the interior of the black building is more mysterious than the white one.

  In such condition of the site, the building carried a strong symbolic impression without many theatres inside. Instead, it is constituted by many blackmat-shed studios like tents. Because the Koenji is a civic street, I think the term mat-shed studio is more proper to comply with its style.

  Because of the limited number of exits towards the road, the entrance to the lobby just neighbors with the entrance of loading stage properties. Sucha layout is unimaginable for other theatres, however, the line flow arranging the main entrance, ZA-Koenji and cargo entrance on the same level to form adomestic space in it as large as a plaza.

  ABOUT DESIGN FEATURES AND COMPLEX OF THE THEATRE

  Based on the design requirement of arranging 3 theatres and 3 rehearsal studios in a space with little spare room, the design of the layout becomesextremely difficult. However, the recombination of two theatres with each having 250 seats according to different standards is the greatest feature of ZAKoenji.One is ZA-Koenji 1 that is the changeable venue for free performances but has to be configured each time; the other is ZA-Koenji 2, a traditionaltheatre with stepped immovable seats facing the stage. In particular, the ZA-Koenji 1 has a 21-meter square flat with high ceiling (9 meters to the meshgrille). Besides, the combinations of flexible seats can be arranged into platform-type or step-type. After the design competition, the strong idea andrequirement of the art director Mr. Sato Shin was immediately imported and expressed to eventually build a space that can cater to various changes ofseats and stage installation.

  The design for lining up two performance theatres with the same scale but different usages needs great courage. But thanks to the decision of Mr.Sato Shin, these two theatres are now being used to the fullest extent.

  These two theatres are stacked up above the ground and underground. To ensure the greatest sound-proof function, the suspended floor structureis adopted. And anti-seismic and sound-proof layer is also installed on the walls (the walls and ceiling of ZA-Koenji 2). Thus, the satisfying result has beenmade in the limited space.

  The Awa Dance Hall in Theatre 3 also adds new features to ZA-Koenji. Unlike the atmosphere of the other two theatres, it has bright colors. Becauseof its large space, this hall is suitable for Jazz and similar concerts.

  ABOUT THE STRUCTURE FEATURES AND REINFORCED STEEL PLATE CONCRETE

  The expression of the unusual appearance was strengthened by the abstract volume of integrated walls and roof. The ridges of the construction mustbe very sharp to highlight abstraction. The shape of this roof is composed of many conical surfaces and oval conical surfaces. To produce the impression ofmembrane structure, it is imperative to present the intense feeling on the surfaces. And the most suitable material is the steel plate. If the SC structure is adopted, just like what is like in MIKINOTO Ginza 2 where concrete is filled between 2 steel plates, it will realize the thinnest but strongest structure.

  However, on the other hand, to improve the sound-proof function, the walls and roof must be thick enough. After talking with the Structure Engineer Mutsuro Sasaki, we decided to adopt the structural form with rib steel plates (t-9mm)on the external side and concrete on the internal side (wall surfacet=225mm; roof surface t=160mm). On the ridge of the roof, to set up the truss and pour concrete, we use the thin steel plate (t=2.3mm) on the bottom asthe typified form and place more steel plates above it (t=12mm).

  After the steel plates are processed in the factory, they are moved to the site and welded into one piece.

  The structure design of the facade presents the strong sense of form.

  ABOUT THE MAKEUP OF INTERNAL SPACE AND CAVE SPACE

  Because the underground space, in three levels, accounts for 70% of the total space, the key issue is how to design the simple and plain verticalmovement. The lifts are certainly necessary, while the large-sized spiral stairs in the main hallway also play an important role by producing strong visualeffect to connect the whole space.

  The area surrounding the stairs is the most impressive part in the domestic space. Many small circular windows are there around the stairs and thenatural light changes as the day goes on, casting into the domestic space in different expressions. The natural light, together with the circular indirect lighton the stair handrails, produce the feeling that people are standing in a cave. In particular, when looking up on level 2, people would feel they are hiddenunderground. In this way, the mysterious feeling made by the expression of the black appearance has been further emphasized in the domestic space.

  Besides, as the caf?in level 2 is also full of natural light coming through the small circular windows, one would have the illusion that they are in anunder-ground space though it is actually above the ground. This caf?can be used as a meeting place, a venue for small lectures, concerts or library. It is acharming space with multiple functions.

  The space from level plus 2 to level minus 2 is the public space for free entrance. Though it has a strong character that isolating with the externalenvironment, one will find the very open and continuous space when they walk into it. Waking along the stairs, you can joyfully experience many differentbut orderly changes. Besides, the resting space of ZA-Koenji 2 and Awa Dance Hall can also be used for art gallery.

  As to the furniture, Ms. Fujie designed the minimum necessary content.

  The movable drink stands and vendor stands are mainly placed in the entrance lobby and the outside balcony in front of the entrance, building upthe lively atmosphere of the theater. The wall-like leaflet platform at the reception is also made of steel plate. Their color matches those of external andinternal walls to emphasize the sense of an integrated building. Woolen resting benches were placed in the interior courtyard on level minus 2, where youcan lie down and see as far as the upward space of the courtyard. When sleeping on your back on the couch, you can see the sky in the distance. Almost allthe pieces of furniture are at very low cost.

  This building was opened only less than 1 year ago. However, thanks to the enthusiastic and diligent efforts of NPO statutory designated managersand the residents, it has been deeply rooted on the district of Koenji Street. I am very gratified that what is coming into being is not just a case-like object.Instead, it is now a living building.

  文_伊东丰雄

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