传统的新生:多摩艺术大学图书馆结构体系和材料运用评析

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:多摩艺术大学,图书馆,伊东丰雄
  • 发布时间:2014-04-11 16:48

  伊东丰雄是一位努力探索新结构体系和空间的建筑实践家,近年来他一反之前的材料偏好,开始在作品中大量采用混凝土。日前建筑网站ArchiDaily评选出10座以非凡灵感运用混凝土的建筑,伊东的多摩艺术大学图书馆(TAM)名列其中。通过对TAM 结构和材料体系的阐释,分析了三方面问题:从“浮动网格(Emergent grid)”这一概念出发,TAM的结构材料体系如何参与到复杂的场地环境和多样性活动设计中来;TAM 拱形结构的设计是否基于历史主义的考虑,又有何创新;TAM采用了钢框架和混凝土的结构体系,模糊处理了承重结构和表皮的关系,这种手法似乎与“材料真实性”原则相悖,这反映了伊东什么样的思考。

  关键词:伊东丰雄,多摩艺术大学图书馆,混凝土,拱形结构,浮动网格

  Abstract:Toyo Ito is an architect that effort to explore new structural systems and space. In recent years, he began to use of concretein his works. Nowadays, the famous architectural website ArchiDaily selected 10 projects inspired by concrete, including Ito‘s Tama ArtUniversity Library (TAM). Through interpretation on the structural system and materials of TAM, the analysis focuses on three aspects:from the concept “emergent grid”, how TAM’s structural system to participate in the design of the complex functions and the diversityof activities; whether TAM‘s arch is based on historicism, what innovation of it; TAM uses a steel frame and concrete, obfuscates therelationship between the load-bearing structure and the epidermis, this approach seems to be contrary to the principle of “materialauthenticity”, which reflects what thinking of Ito.

  Keywords:Toyo Ito, Tama Art University Library, Concrete, Arch, Emergent grid

  新趋势

  NEW TREND

  以仙台媒体中心为代表,运用铝、玻璃、钢材等轻薄材料,创造出暂时性、流动性、透明性空间的建筑是学界对伊东作品普遍的印象。与其同辈人安藤忠雄惯用混凝土的风格相比,早期伊东的混凝土作品多集中在70年代事业伊始阶段。因此有研究者认为他基于混凝土“本身的特性,对于表现暂时性、流动性、透明性上的局限”而甚少使用[1]。但是,近年来伊东的作品大量使用混凝土,如TOD’s表叁道区大楼、岐阜县市政殡仪馆等,正如2013年普利茨克奖的评审辞写道:“他的早期作品都富于现代性,使用质地较轻的标准工业材料及部件,例如:钢管、金属网、穿孔铝箔片及透气性织物。他后期极具表现力的作品则大多使用钢筋混凝土”,“使用了钢筋混凝土来表现流动的有机形式”[2]。伊东在访谈中回答了转变的原因:首先,早期作品多采用较为规整的几何形体,是为当时结构模拟技术所限,2000年之后的建筑采用了新的结构分析软件,可以模拟各种非规则几何形体和表皮,因此在形式上逐趋不拘[3];然后,混凝土塑造三维曲线等复杂形体的效果卓越,设计得当也可获得轻盈、流动的效果,所以日渐增多[4]。

  Behalf of Sendai Mediatheque, using lightweight materials such as aluminum, glass, steel and so on, creating a temporary, flowing and transparent building space is the general impression toward Toyo Ito. Compared to Tadao Ando, who is famous on using concrete, Ito`s concrete works mostly built inthe 1970s at the beginning of his career. Therefore, some researchers believed that based on concrete`s own characteristics, the limitations to express temporary liquidity and transparency, Ito rarely used it1. However, in recent years, Ito extensive use of concrete in the works, such as TOD’S building inTokyo and Meiso no Mori Municipal Funeral Hall Kakamigahara-shi in Gifu. As the Jury Citation in 2013 Pritzker Prize: “From the outset, he developedworks that were modern, using standard industrial materials and components for his lightweight structures, such as tubes, expanded meshes, perforatedaluminum sheeting and permeable fabrics. His later expressive works have been formed using mostly reinforced concrete”, “using concrete to createflowing organic forms as he did.”2 Ito answered the reasons for the change in two interviews: First, his early works to adopt a simple geometrical shapes,because he was always having difficulty with structural simulations, but since 2000, he have been using advanced structural analysis tools and cansimulate any surface with computers3; Second, concrete is the easiest material to shape surfaces that incorporate complex three-dimensional curves4.

  近日,著名的建筑网站ArchiDaily 评选出10座以非凡灵感运用混凝土的建筑[5]:既包括五座20世纪名作—尼迈耶的巴西利亚教堂(Cathedralof Brasilia,1958-1960),康的萨克生物研究所(Salk Institute,1959),伍重的巴格斯瓦德教堂(Bagsv.rd Church,1976),哈迪德的维特拉消防站(Vitra Fire Station,1993)以及米拉列斯和皮诺的英古拉达墓园(Igualada Cemetery,1994);也选择了五座近年的建筑案例,伊东的多摩艺术大学附属图书馆(Tama Art University Library, 以下简称TAM)名列其中。这座建筑应用了混凝土连续拱形结构,充分展示他近年来作品的新趋势。

  Recently, the famous architectural website ArchiDaily selected 10 projects inspired by concrete5: not only five 20th century masterpieces - Niemeyer‘sCathedral of Brasilia (1958-1960), Kahn`s Salk Institute (1959), Utzon’s Bagsv.rd Church (1976), Hadid‘s Vitra Fire Station (1993) and Miralles + Pinos`Igualada Cemetery (1994); but also five cases in recent years, Tama Art University library subsidiary of Ito (hereinafter referred to TAM) is one of them.With the continuous concrete arches structure, the building demonstrates a new trend of his recent work.

  TAM的结构和材料

  STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS OF TAM

  TAM 2007年2月落成,由伊东丰雄建筑设计事务所负责建筑和设备设计,佐佐木睦朗构造计画研究所进行结构设计。总建筑面积5 639.46平方米,占地面积2 224.59平方米,地下一层,地上两层,地上部分为钢框架混凝土结构,地下部分为钢筋混凝土结构[6]。

  TAM was completed in February 2007, the architect is Toyo Ito & Associates, and the structural engineer is Sasaki Structural Consultants. The totalfloor area is 5,639.46 sq. m and the building area is 2,224.59 sq. m. The building has 2 stories and basement. The structure is made by steel frame andconcrete, and the basement is reinforced concrete. 6

  浮动网格

  EMERGENT GRID

  TAM 的设计理念是希望为学生创造出一种更随意、亲密的场所,打破校园传统、保守的气氛。那么TAM的结构材料体系是如何参与到复杂的场地环境和多样性活动设计中的呢?

  TAM’s design philosophy is creating a more casual, intimate place for the students, breaking the rigid conservative atmosphere in campus. How TAM‘sstructural system to participate in the design of the complex functions and the diversity of activities?

  浮动网格(Emergent/Emerging grid)是其设计理念的核心[7],这是伊东用来形容近期作品中建筑和结构关系的关键词汇,他认为现代主义建筑使用了固定的网格,用来限定空间和结构,最典型者是柯布西耶的多米诺体系和密斯·范·德罗的通用空间。他则希望创造出不断变化的结构体系,打破传统静态形式的束缚。在这种期望下,简单网格体系完全无法满足多样、动态、三维的复杂形体,浮动网格的概念应运而生。

  Emergent (Emerging) grid is the key words used to describe the architectural and structural relationships of Ito`s recent works7, he thinks modernist architecture using a constant grid to define the space and structure, such as Le Corbusier’s Domino House and Mies van der Rohe‘s universal space. Hehopes to create a shifting structure, breaking the traditional static form. In this expectation, a simple grid system completely unable to meet the diverse,dynamic, three-dimensional complex geometry, the concept of Emergent (Emerging) grid come into being.

  TAM的基地从北到南逐渐升高,倾斜度为1/20,建筑外轮廓呈四边形,东、南两边呈直角相交,北、西两面则为流线型,使得建筑与周围环境呈一种更亲密的关系。图书馆一层和二层平面组织方式基本相同,网格体系以曲线横纵相交,貌似随意的网格和功能是紧密配合的。根据不同的功能,TAM既需要连续的空间,如开架阅览室,又要求围合的区域,如办公室。拱结构比“梁- 板- 柱”结构更能满足这种要求。首先,同样在没有竖向隔墙的情况下,拱结构的领域感更强。TAM每3到5个拱结构围合成一个空间单元,根据不同的功能,多个单元进行组合,设备间和洗手间等需要封闭的空间则在网格的控制下使用了隔墙。然后,拱形比传统的梁跨度更大,TAM 拱的跨度从1.6米到16米不等,较大的跨度满足阅览室等大空间的要求,且弧形拱廊的结构非常薄,落地十字型拱脚的宽度仅400毫米,配合拱廊连续的曲线,使得空间在视觉上的流动感、连续性得到加强。看似灵活但实则有组织的网格关系,配合结构体系,创造出TAM独特的空间感受。

  The site of TAM has a 1/ 20 incline that rises from north to south, the outline of the building is a quadrangle, the east and south edges are straight,the north and west sides have concave walls, making a more intimate relationship with the surroundings. The first and second plans have the same layoutof axis, and the grid system which tightly following the functions, emphasizes curved lines. Depending on the function, TAM requires not onlycontinuous space, such as open-shelf reading room, but also enclosed areas, such as offices. Arch structure is better than the “beam - slab - column”system to meet this requirement. First, arch has a stronger sense of areas than “beam - slab - column” system. 3 to 5 arches enclose one space, whichcombining with same function, under the control of the grid using walls to enclosed equipment room and rest room. Second, the span of arch is longerthan beam. The span of arches in TAM are ranging from 1.6m to 16m, the longer span meets the requirements of reading room and other large space, andthe curved arcade structure is very thin, only 400mm width, making sense of movement and continuity in the space. The flexible but organized grids andstructure are creating a unique feeling of space in TAM.

  拱形结构

  ARCH

  TAM在创造出一种活泼的建筑感受,打破原有校园封闭形态的同时,也将拱这一看似传统的元素加以创新。

  TAM not only creating a more casual, intimate place for the students, breaking the rigid conservative atmosphere in campus, but also innovating the structure of arch in its design.

  拱形结构是TAM设计中最引人注目的特色,多个连续拱造成了一种类似“拱廊”的效果。拱是一种可以充分发挥材料抗压性能的结构,适合砖、石、混凝土等抗压能力强,抗拉能力弱的材料,且施工需要搭建的脚手架复杂昂贵,一般建筑中应用不广。再者由于拱在西方文明中的特殊地位,使其带有浓厚的“纪念性”和“象征性”,如小沙里宁[8]、康[9]和莫内欧[10]的作品。在这种背景下,TAM势必引起有关历史主义的讨论。

  The arch structure is the most striking feature of TAM, successive arches resulting in an effect of “arcade”. Arch is a pure compression form,such materials as brick, stone, concrete, are able to construct arch, and the construction scaffolding for arch is complex and expensive. So arch is notwidely applied in common buildings. Also due to the special status of arch in the Western civilization, it has a strong characteristic of “monumental” and“symbolic”, such as the masterpieces by Eero Saarinen8, Louis Kahn9 and Rafael Moneo10. In this context, TAM inevitably leads to discussions of historicism.

  在西方和日本历史上,建筑物地下层、下水道、地铁等地下空间多采用拱结构,拱结构的应用给这类空间带来“洞穴”般的感受,且非常好的承载了地面的巨大压力,周围土层也形成对拱脚侧推力的抵抗。“洞穴”可以说是TAM最初的设计灵感,因为伊东希望建造一座纯地下建筑,虽然因预算和地下已有设备等原因无法实现,但“洞穴”的概念保留下来。哥特建筑、中东露天市场、装置艺术“Merzbau”、圣吉纳维夫图书馆、路易·康的纪念性建筑,这些历史题材似乎都给予了TAM灵感[11],甚至钟乳石这种自然元素[12]。伊东在访谈中明确表示TAM受到了拉布鲁斯特设计的巴黎圣吉纳维夫图书阅览室的影响:“巴黎国家图书馆给予了我灵感。并不因为它也是图书馆。我喜欢它壮观、优雅的钢[13]拱和震撼的空间效果[14]。”

  In Western and Japanese history, underground space, the basement of buildings, sewers, and subways uses arch structure, which applies this kind of space a feeling like “cave” (Fig. 5), and good at carrying the enormous pressure from upper ground, the surrounding soil is also against the thrust ofthe arch. “Cave” is TAM`s initial design inspiration: at first, Ito hoped to design an underground library, but the budget and the underground facilities wererejected, the concept of “cave” still preserved. Gothic architecture, Middle Eastern souk, installation art “Merzbau”, Sainte-Geneviève Library, Louis Kahn`smonuments, these historical buildings seem to give TAM an inspiration11, even stalactites12. In an interview, Ito made it clear that TAM has been inspired byLabrouste`s Sainte-Geneviève Library reading room: “I was inspired by the L`Instiut National d`Histoire de I`Art in Paris. That`s not because it`salso a library. I just liked the slenderness and elegance of the steel13 arches and the stimulating space they create.” 14

  尽管TAM 的拱形结构受到历史建筑启发,伊东却无意在设计中向传统致敬:“拱是一种古老的建筑要素,而这个项目(TAM)使用的技术却是一种创新”[15]。TAM的拱形结构由拱身和脚部锚固的刚节点组成,为整体的超静定结构,钢结构和楼板、屋面的连接部分箍筋加密,使得荷载能够较为均匀的分布在拱结构上(由于图书馆建筑各功能的楼面均布活荷载相差悬殊[16],更容易出现荷载分布不均的现象),造成均布荷载下的合理拱轴线。这些结构措施充分发挥材料的力学性能,大大减少承重体量,使得钢结构和混凝土总厚度仅有200毫米。虽然从形态和受力方式上来说TAM 使用了拱形结构,却是一种从未在历史上出现过的新拱。

  Although the arches of TAM inspired by historic buildings, Ito has no intention to pay tribute to the tradition in the design:“although the arch is

  an ancient architectural element this project was built using a technology that was very innovative at the time.”12 TAM`s is a statically indeterminate

  structure, arch connects slab and roofing with encrypted reinforced, making the load can be more evenly distributed over the arch structure. The

  structure gives full play to the mechanical properties of the material, greatly reducing the amount of load-bearing body, making the steel and concrete of

  the total thickness of only 200mm. Although TAM uses arch structure, it is a new arch never appeared in history.

  材料应用

  MATERIALS APPLICATIONS

  TAM 主要承重结构是钢框架,却在其外浇筑了混凝土,是一种结构上含混的处理手法,似乎不体现“材料真实性”或“遵从材料本质”原则。“遵从材料本质”(in the nature of materials)是一种典型的现代主义观点:赖特宣称:“如果根据材料的本质加以运用,每一种新的材料都意味着一种新形式,一种新用途。”路易·康对砖“存在意志”有着精妙比喻:“……你对砖说:‘你想要什么,砖?’砖对你说:‘我爱拱券。’”这些观念强烈影响着20世纪现代主义,那些外表与营造本质脱离的建筑被嘲讽为“布景术”(scenography),如格雷夫斯的波特兰大厦。但是,建于21 世纪的TAM决不能用如此单一的标准评价。

  The main load-bearing structure of TAM is made by steel frame, and poured concrete outside, it is an ambiguous structure, does not seem to reflect the “material authenticity” or “ in the nature of materials “principle. In the nature of materials is a typical modernist concept: Wright declared:“Each material has its own message and, to the creative artist, its own song.” Louis Kahn said:“ ...you say to Brick, ‘What do you want, Brick?’ And Bricksays to you, ‘I like an Arch.’ “These ideas strongly influenced 20th century`s modernism, and the buildings didn`t follow the principle were ridiculed as”scenography“, such as the Michael Graves‘ Portland Building. However, built in the 21st century, TAM is not be used to comment on such a single standard.

  钢框架外浇混凝土是一种最经济的防火方式,如密斯·范·德罗在美国的设计。不过密斯会将混凝土外再包裹或悬挂钢材,以表达真正的承重结构是钢,刻意掩盖了混凝土存在。TAM浇筑的混凝土将钢结构完全包裹,保持了室内的一致性,地面、拱和楼板浑然一体,并通过拱形结构的使用造成一种贯穿体量内和表层的孔洞,不似传统框架结构梁、板、柱的清晰区分。一般观念中厚重的混凝土在TAM的体现却是纤细的拱脚和流线型的外观,与表层齐平的玻璃,反射周围的环境,使外立面的混凝土似乎没有厚度。造成这种反常规效果的原因正是利用了钢结构,取消了内部的钢筋骨架,显著减少了厚度,让混凝土表达出了“轻薄”感。可以说,模糊了结构的TAM,却创造出混凝土材料的新感受。

  Pouring concrete outside the steel frame is the most economical way of fireproof, such as Mies van der Rohe’s projects in the United States. But he wrapped or hanging steels outside the concrete , to express the logic that the true load-bearing structure is still steel, deliberately obscures the existence of concrete. TAM`s concrete completely pours outside the steel frame to maintain the consistency of the space, and creates continuous holes throug hinterior and surface13, unlike the clear distinctive space of traditional frame structure. General concept of concrete is heavy and solid, but TAM‘s reflects slim and streamlined appearance. The glass is flush with the surface, reflecting the surrounding environment, seems to make the concrete thickness. The reason for this effect is the use of steel frame, the skeleton significantly reducing the thickness of the concrete. It can be said, the TAM creates a newexperience of concrete materials.

  小结

  CONCLUSION

  TAM 利用了拱,从空间组织、结构形式和材料运用三方面进行了新探索,为使用者带来独特的感受。TAM也反映了伊东丰雄新的建筑趋势,证明了他是一位可以灵活掌控多种材料,并在结构上不断创新的实践家。

  Using arch, TAM explores from three aspects: spatial organization, structure and materials, provides the user a unique experience. It also reflects new trends of Toyo Ito, proves he is an architect who could flexible control of various materials and Continue to innovate in structure.

  参考文献

  [1] R. Gregory. Reading Matter. Architectural Review(London). August 2007.P47-54

  [2] T. Daniell. Beyond the virtual body: Toyo Ito interviewed on his Sendai Mediatheque and Tama Library. Volume (Amsterdam) n. 15 (2008) P60-64

  [3] Tama art university library. Japanese Architecture(Tokyo) 2007(67).P120

  [4] Toyo Ito 2005-2009.EL croquis(Madrid).147

  [5] 谢宗哲. 建筑家伊东丰雄. 北京: 中国青年出版社,2012 年

  [6] 沈轶. 伊东丰雄形式语言分析—背景、转变与启示. 硕士论文. 大连理工大学.2004 年

  [7] Peter Macapia.“Emergent Grid”: A Conversation with Toyo Ito. 2006. http://www.petermacapia.com/blog/conversationtoyoito

  [8] Jakob Harry Hybel. Tama Art University Library. May 27 2013. http://www.arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/tama-art-university-library/

  References

  [1] R. Gregory. Reading Matter. Architectural Review(London). August 2007.P47-54

  [2] T. Daniell. Beyond the virtual body: Toyo Ito interviewed on his Sendai Mediatheque and Tama Library. Volume (Amsterdam) n. 15 (2008) P60-64

  [3] Tama art university library. Japanese Architecture (Tokyo) 2007(67).P120

  [4] Toyo Ito 2005-2009.EL croquis(Madrid).147

  [5] Xie Zongzhe. Architect Toyo Ito.Beijing: China Youth Press,2012

  [6] Shen Yi. Analysis in the Form Langue of Toyo Ito - Background, Change and Enlightenment. Masteral dissertation.Dalian University of Technology.2004

  [7] Peter Macapia.“Emergent Grid”: A Conversation with Toyo Ito. 2006. http://www.petermacapia.com/blog/conversationtoyoito

  [8] Jakob Harry Hybel. Tama Art University Library. May 27 2013. http://www.arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/tama-art-university-library/

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  5. http://www.archdaily.com/457418/material-inspiration-10-projects-inspired-by-concrete/,2014-01-03 访问

  http://www.archdaily.com/457418/material-inspiration-10-projects-inspired-by-concrete/, visited in Jan 3, 2014

  6. Tama art university library. Japanese Architecture(Tokyo) 2007(67).P120

  Tama art university library. Japanese Architecture(Tokyo) 2007(67).P120

  7. R. Gregory. Reading Matter. Architectural Review(London). August 2007.P47-54

  R. Gregory. Reading Matter. Architectural Review(London). August 2007.P47-54

  8. 小沙里宁的圣路易斯拱门、康的孟加拉国达卡国会大厦、莫内欧的梅里达国立罗马博物馆

  Eero Saarinen` St. Louis Gateway Arch, , Louis Kahn`s Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban in Bangladesh, and Rafael Moneo`s The National Museum of Roman Art in Merida

  9. Toyo Ito 2005-2009.EL croquis(Madrid).147.P29

  Toyo Ito 2005-2009.EL croquis(Madrid).147.P29

  10. http://www.arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/tama-art-university-library/,2014-01-03 访问

  http://www.arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/tama-art-university-library/, visited in Jan 3, 2014

  11. 实际上是铸铁柱而不是钢柱

  Actually is cast iron columns instead of steel columns

  12. 同4,P62

  T. Daniell, P62

  13. 同4,P62

  T. Daniell, P62

  14. 以国内规范为例,楼面均布活荷载标准值,阅览室2.0 千牛/ 平方米,书库5.0 千牛/ 平方米,密集柜书库12.0 千牛/ 平方米

  Reading Room 2.0kN/m2, Stacks 5.0kN/m2, Intensive Counter Stacks 12.0kN/m2

  15. R. 魏斯顿 著,吴莉君 译. 改变建筑的100 个观念. 台北:脸谱,城邦文化出版. 2012 年. P129

  R. Weston. 100 Ideas That Changed Architecture. Laurence King Publishing, 2011.P129

  16. 吴焕加.20 世纪西方建筑史. 郑州:河南科学技术出版社.1998.P259

  Wu Huanjia. A History of Architecture of the 20TH Century in the Western World. Henan Kexue Jishu Press, P259

  17. 谢宗哲. 建筑家伊东丰雄. 北京: 中国青年出版社,2012 年. P276-277

  Xie Zongzhe. Architect Toyo Ito.Beijing: China Youth Press,2012. P276-277

  文_杨菁(天津大学建筑学院 讲师)、朱振骅(天津市建筑设计院 建筑师)、李江(北京工业大学建筑与城市规划学院 讲师)

……
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