工匠建筑师

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:坎波·巴埃萨,工匠,艺术
  • 发布时间:2014-04-25 08:21

  坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 是一名工匠建筑师。他靠双手工作,他也阅读诗歌。他的建筑专业实践采用的方式在当下过度专注自身原创性,和过度专注于第一印象处理的风气里经常被人们淡忘,置诸脑后。

  工匠的职业身份意味着以艺术的方式行事,即学习一门手艺并以行动将这些知识付诸实践,进而通过这些被称作经验的知识不断提高实践水平。所有的技能,在最初都是一种亲身的实践,即便是那些最为抽象的也不例外。[1] 在建筑学领域中,阿尔伯托做出了一项研究,借助光的塑造以及建筑的主要元素,包括:石头(混凝土)、玻璃、钢铁和水探索定义空间的可能性。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza),和密斯·凡·德罗(Mies vander Rohe) 一样,是一名精修工、一名寻找精简风格的优秀工匠。

  建筑学—建筑的艺术、创造的艺术、布置和装饰房子的艺术,最基础的知识,智慧的游戏;无论你对其作出何种定义,建筑学无疑是人类在这个地球上最早的人工表达。建筑学从最初起便是一种最纯粹的语言,它能够让人们表现出其居住于这个世界的能力和意愿。坎波·巴埃萨(Campo Baeza) 在他所建造的住宅中扮演着这些需求的阐释者,并不断地探索最恰当的建筑语言以构建一个使人感到归属的地方,一个当代的杜马斯(Domus–古罗马富有公民的住宅–译注)。

  用尼古拉·埃默里(Nicola Emery)的话说,建筑工程应当这样被刻写在目的论中,即整体的福祉,培养生活的高品质,乃是诸般实践的目的所在[2]:这正是阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的住宅建筑的目标。

  涉及到私人住宅的工作对于建筑师而言是一个难能可贵的机会,他能够以这些小型建筑为基准检验和不断改善自己对建筑学总体的想法和定位。从帕拉迪奥(Palladio) 到理查德·诺伊特拉(Richard Neutra)(仅举几例),这些建筑师们的主要理念无不集中体现在他们设计的住宅建筑中。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 也是这样,他在其所设计和建造的住宅中完美地融汇了其所掌握的建筑经验和专业知识。在他的建筑学里存在着三个标志:本质性、必要性和精确性。

  本质性。本质的事物经常被与抽象的事物混淆起来,它在建筑学中经常体现为极简的风格。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza)的建筑学拒绝抽象、拒绝当下的极简主义风潮。如海因里希·特森诺(Heinrich Tessenow) 所写到的,“从没有人说过我们通常所认为明晰的事物必然是简单的,尽管事实上简单有利于明晰(各种方位上的明晰)。重视明晰性可能意味着一味追求简化而导致各个意义层面上的简单化,而将丰富性,多样性视为与明晰性格格不入。”[3] 对于阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 而言,住宅设计让他获得了一个机会去探索在建造人类生活的足够空间中所必需的元素,进而涉及到了住宅的明晰性与简洁性这一问题。探索什么样的空间是住居真正需要的,这样的空间应当足够满足真正的居住需要,而不是象在当今城市中常见的那样以“形式意志”造成的束缚人们生活的空间。这种束缚人们的空间并非接纳、引导人类的生活,而是对其进行控制和消耗。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 把这一要领作为一种基本特点,用于定义其住宅的形态、类型和结构。这一明智且持续的探索最终总结成为一种独特的建筑语言,赋予其作品强烈的个性,让这些作品易于辨识、具备明显的个人特征,但又从不具有可预测性和重复性。

  建筑中的抽象总是带有这样一种性质,它使设计创作脱离真实世界、脱离具体基址,而只是宣扬一种意识主张。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(AlbertoCampo Baeza) 的住宅则正好相反:他的住宅的存在关联于特定的场所,从乡村到城市,这种场所性是它们用于表达和交流的主要力量。这些建筑的诞生始于对其建造地点的深入了解。然后由建筑师根据其深刻的感受对这种场地理解作出判断,并创造出一种简洁且本质的形式,居住的空间正是通过这种过程(几乎都是通过减法的过程)创造出来的。门和窗,作为住宅的内部空间(私人空间)和外部风景(未知区域)之间的过滤元素以一种本质的精确安装在厚墙壁上,从而创造出一种美妙的平衡,这种平衡是通过将建筑与(自然或城市环境)风景、人工与自然联系起来而获得的。这是一种原型的设计,这表达了一种本质的意愿。

  阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的住宅作为一组空间,其构成总是能够反映并尊重客户对日常生活、对特定地点的居住意愿。但是他个人对于根本原因的探索使这种构成总是能超越功能的偶然性,而达到生活理念的本质,他的行动让人想起埃内斯托·南森·罗杰斯(ErnestoNathan Rogers) 的忠告:将偶然性的存在当作永恒的行为会让偶然被误认为是绝对的。当诗人将朱庇特作为上帝赞美时,这种关于上帝的观念将比某一历史时刻的神更为重大,它将蕴含在语言当中,在诗作中永存。因此即便雅典娜已经逝去,关于她的祭仪以及伴随着这些祭仪其他所有的相关活动也烟消云散,而帕台农神殿依旧存在着。[4] 他的建筑总是试图克服时尚和创意的障碍:对阿尔伯托而言,建筑体现一名工匠的工作过程,而优秀的手艺总是惧怕独创性,而非惧怕习惯或重复,这些重复或习惯通常承载着他的解释。[5]

  必要性。必要性是指事物的内在本质和外在表象都达到不能继续推敲更动时的特征。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的住宅建造都试图达到这种必要性和适当性;适当性意味着均衡、正确。适当的空间乃是宁静的空间,在其中能够发现平和,感觉快乐。而正确总是与真理有关。生活真理的具体化就是必要性:无论是单一的物体还是整个空间,必要性就其本质而言就是绝对最小值,没有了它整体本身将不复存在。在这位西班牙建筑师的工作和研究中,这是最富有创造力的成就:辨别出什么样的物质元素能够经受得住时间的证明,同时于人们的生活有效用,能够包含生活的感受。在阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的住宅中一切都是必要的:从整体衡量没有什么是多余的。从单一空间的定义开始,必要性被实用地定义为解决遇到的、可能发生的日常问题,其所包含的理念不言而喻:即以功能的概念对抗需求的概念。空间的职能高于对空间的使用:高明地洞穿墙面,从而让光线进入建筑当中,使用光线将空间连接起来,这些精确的手法达成这样的效果;既可以说功能跟随空间,又可以说每个空间仅能是某一特定功能的场所。

  精确性。我们不要直的也不要弯的,不要智慧也不要愚蠢,我们不要粗糙也不要精美,我们需要知道一切,这样我们才能抓住那些对整体而言真正本质、真正重要的东西。我们应当保持细致谨慎以尽可能地接近正确的东西。再也没有比肤浅更为糟糕的敌人了,我们应当一直告诉我们自己:如果一件事物是必要的,不论如何微小,从任何角度看也应当就是本质。[6]

  在阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的住宅中,最为显著的品质是这些住宅没有当代的疯狂,而是处在建筑的历史(和文化)中。从西班牙到美国,他设计的住宅都贯穿着一条主线,那就是根植于欧洲现代主义建筑师的作品中并一直延续到我们当代的建筑文化传统。坎波·巴埃萨(Campo Baeza) 的所有住宅无不完美地体现着他长年以来默默的不懈研究,这些研究主要着眼于建造的方法和建筑的意义。没有思考的行动仅是简单地把当前统一的意识形态落实到实践中而已。[7] 在坎波·巴埃萨(Campo Baeza) 的住宅中能够发现墙壁、柱子和圆柱这三种元素的多种组合,并且每次都反馈出不同的意义。

  墙壁。通过墙壁的利用,他定义出了确定而精确的分隔和边界,典型的例子包括:莫林内尔住宅(Moliner House)(位于萨拉戈萨)、古拉罗住宅(Guerrero House)(位于加的斯)或阿森西奥住宅(Asencio House)(位于加的斯)。为了对内部和外部做出定义,首要的是对所处的城市和乡村环境定位,赋予明确的空间定义:墙壁是沉默的元素,但是却具备了最大的表现力,这可能是由于对折射在地面和倒影池上的光进行了控制,令其合理地散布在住宅内的空间当中。墙壁成为周围城市、乡村风景的控制点,明确表达住宅所需要的隐私和保护。

  柱子。位于托莱多的鲁福住宅(Rufo House),粗糙表面的钢筋混凝土柱从容纳主要住宅功能的基座状的底层建筑中升起,是对周围严酷环境的一种明确回应。这些柱子没有遮挡住宅向周围令人惊叹的景观开放,而是作为住宅在这个领域内存在的明确标志,使之与环境溶为一体。布拉斯住宅(BlasHouse)(马德里)则恰恰相反。由不同的房间组成的住宅底层形成一个屋顶露台,一个当代的柱承式阳台,而上层的白色钢柱则从平台边线后退,与景观融合为一,这个阳台仿佛一旦太阳升起便会立刻蒸发掉一般。

  圆柱。如何在基座/ 墩座上建造一个带有屋顶的玻璃盒子这一题目,同样也在包括位于加里森(纽约)的欧尔尼克·斯帕努住宅(Olnik SpanuHouse) 在内的其它住宅项目中得到进一步发展。但是在这里这一题目非常复杂。这个工程明显的效果体现了如何通过持之以恒的工作和对必要性的极致追求达致简单性和明晰性。使用很少几件结构要素建构出一个复杂且富有表现力的语言并不是件容易的事。密斯·凡·德罗(Mies van der Rohe),作为一名无可争辩的大师,通过他的范斯沃斯住宅(Farnsworth House) 为数代建筑师创造了一种建筑学上的参考范例。他持续地研究形式的完美,以克服现代主义在空间和时间上将一切都分配至某一特定功能的焦虑,这一研究促使他设计了这座住宅,这幢住宅在某种程度上是其个人在住宅和建筑研究上的最终成果之一。阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨通过其高度的精确性为这项研究做出了新的贡献,并且依笔者看来他从这位德国大师所停驻的地方向前迈出了一大步。在欧尔尼克住宅,柱子作为轻细的结构支撑着深远的屋顶从森林中出挑,向着湖边延伸,这些柱子在背立面(东南)方向退后到玻璃盒子里面,由玻璃盒子围合、定义住宅的内部空间,而在前立面(西北),柱子则跨前一步,突出到玻璃盒子的前面,伸入到壮丽的景致当中。

  以一些简单的话语描述这些设计抉择意味着和希望面对这些问题的所有建筑师在一起重新审视这些建筑学专业的基本问题。选择采用细长的圆柱能够让建筑师在住宅空间中以及环绕住宅的自然风景中建立一个等级秩序,并同时建构出一条从森林通往湖边的清晰路径,赋予空间以秩序,并延展这一空间直到它与环境彻底融合。

  这是一条不断循环的设计思考途径,是从基本原则到具体情况,再从具体情况到基本原则的反复推敲。这一思考途径让阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨(Alberto Campo Baeza) 的作品成为一种细致和精确的探索,从不肤浅,总是不同寻常。

  有时候人们以为简单等同于贫乏;然而事实上二者之间在实践中并无任何相同之处。实际上,我们所追求的简单可能是最宝贵的财富,而我们所拥有的多样形式也可能被证明是最可怕的贫瘠。[8]

  The Craftsman Architect

  Alberto Campo Baeza is a craftsman architect. He works with his hands and reads poetry. His approach to the architectural profession refers to a situation too often forgotten and pushed into the background nowadays, a time way too focused on originality for its own sake and on the disposal of its throwaway image.

  Being a craftsman means to act with art, learn a craft and to apply this knowledge through actions that improve every day, through that knowledge defined as experience. All skills even the most abstract, begin as bodily practices. 1 In his studies upon architecture hecarried out a very personal research to explore the potential of the definition of space through the molding of light and the primaryelements of construction: stone (concrete), glass, steel and water. Alberto Campo Baeza, such as Mies van der Rohe, is a finisher, a finecraftsman looking for the irreducible.

  Architecture, the art of building, the art of making, the art of arranging and adorning buildings, the basic knowledge, a wise game-however you want to define it- is undoubtedly the first artificial expression of the man who inhabits the Earth. Architecture is ab originethe pure language through which a man demonstrates his ability and willingness to live the world. Campo Baeza, through the constructionof his houses, is the interpreter of these needs and has continually investigated what was the most appropriate language for theconstruction of a homely place, the contemporary domus.

  The architectural project should be, in the words of Nicola Emery, inscribed in a teleology that puts the overall well-being, fostering a high-profile quality of life, as the purpose of each sensitive practice 2 : the domestic architecture of Alberto Campo Baeza aims exactly at this goal.

  Working with the typology of private houses is an incredibly positive opportunity for an architect, being these small architectures the benchmark to test and continuously refine his ideas and positions towards the great subjects of architecture. From Palladio to RichardNeutra -just to name a few- the main ideas, rendered in the concreteness of physical matter, were delivered through the construction ofhouses. Alberto Campo Baeza blends his architectural experience and expertise perfectly in the homes he designed and built.

  Three are the hallmarks of its architecture: essentiality, necessity and accuracy.

  The essentials. What is essential is often confused with the abstract and, translated into architectural terms, with the minimal. Thearchitecture of Alberto Campo Baeza is against abstraction and against contemporary minimalist fashion. As Heinrich Tessenow writes“No one has been said that what we normally consider clear must necessarily be simple, the fact is though that simplicity makes for clarity(clarity in each direction).Then assigning importance to clarity might mean posing the problem of simplicity (for simplicity in every sense),while what is rich and varied is always a hindrance to clarity and, from the very beginning, has nothing in common with this. “ 3 Designinghomes for Alberto Campo Baeza is an opportunity to explore what are the necessary elements for the construction of an adequate spacefor human life, and thus coming to their clarity and simplicity. Spaces that are authentic enough to be inhabited without forcing human lifeinto straitjackets imposed by the will of the form that too often in our contemporary cities include and absorb the life and actions of menrather than accepting and directing it. The key is interpreted by Alberto Campo Baeza as a fundamental feature to define morphology,type and structure of his houses. This wise and constant research is summarized in that sample language that strongly characterizes hisworks, making them recognizable, clearly personal, but never predictable and repetitive.

  The abstraction in architecture always leads to the creation of works that tell us very little of their being in the world, in a specificplace, but bear clear ideologies. The houses of Alberto Campo Baeza are just the opposite: their being placed in specific places, from thecountryside to the city, is their main expressive and communicative force. The genesis of these architectures begins with an in-depthknowledge of those places where they will be built. The interpretation of the results, mediated by the profound sensitivity of the architect,creates a clear and essential form, in which (almost always through a process of deduction and subtraction) the dwelling spaces arecreated. Doors and windows, elements such as large windows that filter the space of the house, the inside (the intimate space), and thelandscape, the exterior (the unknown), are opened in the thick walls with an essential precision for the creation of that mysterious balance obtained by tying inseparably the architecture to the landscape (natural or urban environment that is), the artificial to the natural. With anarchetypal and foundational will.

  The houses of Alberto Campo Baeza are always a set of spaces whose composition reflects and respects the wishes of his clientsto live in everyday life and to live in a specific location. His personal research of the essential causes, however, that such a compositiontends more to the transcendence of a mere functional contingency to reach the essence of the idea of living, his act recalls the warningof Ernesto Nathan Rogers: operating as if the contingent were eternal enhances the relative up to consider it as absolute. If the poet wasable to exalt Jupiter as if he were God, the idea of god is greater than that of a particular historical moment and remained impregnatedin language and lived eternally through the work of the poet. So the Parthenon is alive, even if Minerva is dead, as well as the cult of theGoddess and with it all the related practical activities - the useful extrinsic- that were carried out inside it 4. His architectures tend toovercome the barriers of fashion and originality: architecture is a craftsman‘s process and good craftsmanship always fears originality,but not what is habitual or the repetition, which always bears his explanation. 5

  The necessary. Necessity is that characteristic of an element that can make it no longer editable in terms of both its essence and itsphysical presence. Everything in the construction of the houses by Alberto Campo Baeza tends towards necessary, appropriate; adequatemeans proportionate, right. An adequate space is the space of tranquility, where a man can find peace and simply be happy. And the rightalways has to do with the truth. The truth of living materializes itself in the necessary: from single objects to a whole space the necessaryis, by its ontic nature, the bare minimum without which there would be no entity itself. This is the greatest creative effort through the workand research of the Spanish architect: to identify what are the physical elements that can stand the proof of time and be simultaneouslyvalid for the life of man and able to enclose the feeling of living. It seems that in the case of Alberto Campo Baeza everything is necessary:nothing is superfluous compared to the whole. Right from the definition of the single spaces, pragmatically defined to solve a given andcontingent everyday problem, the idea of necessity is obvious: the concept of functionality is opposed to the concept of need. The vocationof a space prevails on the use of those same spaces: the use of light and the wisely cut walls that allow it to penetrate the building, linksthe spaces and can’t be anything but one the precise begin and consequence of the following; one might say that the function follows thespace but, at the same time, each space can only be the place of a definite function.

  The accuracy. We do not want neither one thing to be straight nor crooked, neither intelligent nor stupid, we do not want neithercoarse nor fine, we need to know everything, so we can take only what is truly essential and important from the whole. We should alwaysbe very scrupulous in order to get as close as possible to what’s right. There’s no worse enemy than superficiality, we should always tellourselves: if this is necessary, as little as it is, it should be the essence from any point of view. 6

  The most striking quality of the houses by Alberto Campo Baeza is that they are out of the frantic contemporary, but inside the history(and culture) of architecture. The houses built from Spain to the United States of America are linked by a fil rouge running from a buildingtradition with deep roots in cultural tradition up to our times through the works of the architects of European modernism. The continuous,patient and silent research carried out by Campo Baeza on how things are built and what is their meaning is perfectly reflected in allhis houses. Action without reflection is simply putting into practice the current and consolidated ideology. 7 The wall, the pillar and thecolumn. Three elements that find multiple combinations in the houses by Campo Baeza and each time return a different meaning.

  The wall. Through the use of the wall he defines distinct and precise fences and boundaries, and the Moliner House (Zaragoza) as wellas the Guerrero House (Cadiz) or Asencio House (Cadiz) are a clear example. They define what is interior and what is exterior. The firstnecessity is to order things in the city as well as in the countryside. To define unambiguous spaces: the wall is a mute element, but it isbrought to the maximum expressiveness possible thanks to the controlled refractions of light on the ground and over the reflecting pools,wisely placed in the open spaces of these houses. The walls become points of reference for both the urban landscape and for the rural,and, clearly, speak of a need for privacy and protection.

  The pillar. For Rufo House in Toledo the choice of using reinforced rough concrete pillars in continuity with the base/podium, astereometric volume which hosts the spaces of the house, is a clear response to the harshness of the landscape. This pillars don’t deny theopening of the house to a stunning landscape, but clearly sign its presence in the territory, blending them ultimately. De Blas House (Madrid)is the right opposite. The white steel pillars here stand back from the line defined by the base that hosts the different rooms and creates aroof terrace, a contemporary altana, looking for a total fusion with the landscape, almost like an ephemeral element ready to disappear assoon as the sun lights up.

  The column. The issue of how to build a glass box covered by a roof on a pedestal/podium is also developed in other houses andincluded in the project for the Olnik Spanu House in Garrison (NY). But the issue here is very complicated. The apparent simplicity andclarity of this project are a demonstration of how the essence is obtainable only through constant work and through the pursuit of extremenecessity. It is not easy to build a complex and expressive language through the use of only a few structural elements. Mies van der Rohe,the undisputed master, created an architectural reference model for generations of architects with his Farnsworth House. His continuousresearch for formal perfection -to overcome the modernist anxiety of assigning everything a specific function in space and time- led him todesign this house that, in a way, is the final of one of his personal researches on dwelling and building. Alberto Campo Baeza contributedto this research with great accuracy, and has made, in my judgment, a step forward from the point where the German master had stopped.The columns, thin structures that underpin the massive roof, which from within the forest soars towards the lake, stand back from theglass box, which closes and defines the interior space of the house, on the rear elevation (south-east) and step forward on the frontprojected towards the magnificent view (north-west).

  Describing this choice with a few simple word means reconsidering the foundational issues of the architectural profession, on thatvirtual workplace that encompasses all the architects that wish to confront themselves on this subject. Choosing to work with slendercircular columns allowed him to give a hierarchical order to the spaces of house and to the natural landscape in which it is inserted and,at the same time, builds a clear path from the forest to the lake, giving an order to the space and stretching it up to merge completely withthe environment.

  This circular path, marked by constant second thoughts and continual changes, from the general to the particular, and vice versa,makes the work of Alberto Campo Baeza a careful and precise research, never superficial or ordinary.

  Sometimes one tends to assimilate simplicity with poverty; it is true however that they have practically nothing in common. In fact, the simplicity which we aspire to can be the greatest wealth, as well as the formal variety that we have may prove to be the greatest poverty. 8

  注释 Notes

  1. Sennett, Richard - L‘uomo artigiano–Feltrinelli Milano–2007–p.18

  2. Nicola Emery, Progettare, costruire, curare - Casagrande, Bellinzona–2007

  3. Tessenow, Heinrich - Osservazioni elementari sul costruire–a cura di Giorgio Grassi–Franco Angeli Editore, Milano – 1916 – p. 112

  4. Rogers, Ernesto Nathan - Esperienza dell’architettura–Edizioni Skira, Milano–2002–p. 188

  5. Tessenow, Heinrich - ibidem – p. 99

  6. Tessenow, Heinrich–ibidem - p.80

  7. De Solà-Morales, Ignasi - Decifrare l‘architettura - Allemandi & C.,Torino - 2001–p.156

  8. Tessenow, Heinrich - ibidem - p.113

  文_阿尔伯托·卡尔德洛尼

关注读览天下微信, 100万篇深度好文, 等你来看……