探索住宅美学

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑师,伦敦建筑联盟学院,柏拉图
  • 发布时间:2014-04-25 08:36

  美

  BEAUTY

  在一本介绍自己的住宅设计的书里,一个建筑师能够真切的阐述自己的思考吗?他能够清楚地说明他是如何实现建筑之美的吗?在生活中,在建筑实践中,在我的住宅设计中,美是我一直孜孜以求,务以臻至的目的。我受到柏拉图和圣奥古斯丁的影响,后者曾说过:“美是真的光彩。”而对这句话最好的诠释就是伦敦建筑联盟学院的校铭:“设计以美,建筑以真。”

  尽管建筑最终都是对形式的具体化,但是对真实的探索并不仅仅是对形式的探索。在建筑学上,形式是终点而非起点。我一直反复强调创意的重要性,因为形式是可以被破坏的,它们会消失,但是创意则会留存。当然,建筑中的创意必须经过构建,并被转化为形式。

  美不是表面的,模糊的或捉摸不定的。它是深远的,准确的,实在的,它能够触及人的根本,让时间凝止,使我们的作品恒久不衰,留驻人们的心中。这种在建筑中达到的美是通过严格的、有深度的和全身心投入的工作的结果,是努力探索而达成的。

  每一个新项目对于我来说都是寻找和发现我所孜孜追求的美的机会。我所有的项目都是“独一无二的”。在每个项目中,我都全力以赴,尽最大的努力构思和设计。在这一过程中,我始终坚信,创造是世界上最美好的过程。

  同时,我也拒绝过许多项目,因为它们没有给我提供充分的自由空间,或者我认为这些项目不值得我为之投入。也许有人会认为我这是摆架子。但我相信,这是保证在生命的过程中不断创造并实现生命价值的唯一途径。所有名副其实的创造者、诗人、作家、音乐家以及画家都能够理解这一点。斯蒂芬·茨威格(Stefan Zweig) 在他的文章“艺术创作的秘密”中说的好,“没有什么比认识到人也可以创造不朽价值,通过不懈努力,通过艺术实现永恒更能带来喜悦或满足感了。”

  何塞·波尔加明(José Bergamín) 在赞赏西班牙诗人乔治·曼里奎(Jorge Manrique)的诗作时写道:“这些对句(couplet)是如此奇妙,它们一下子就将某个历史性时刻转化为了永恒的瞬间。”我作为一名建筑师,正是希望我的住宅具有同样的能力—将历史时刻转化为永恒瞬间。只有这样,我的作品才能经受得住时光的流逝,永远留存在人们心中!

  Can an architect in a book on his houses place his cards on the table and clearly speak about how his aim to achieve beauty? WhatI strive to achieve is beauty, that beauty I so earnestly seek: in my life, in my architecture and in my houses. Guided by Plato and SaintAugustine who said that “beauty is the splendor of truth”. Something that is explained so well in the motto displayed on the shield of theLondon Architectural Association: “Design with Beauty, Build in Truth”.

  This committed search for truth is not the search of form for form’s sake, despite the fact that architecture always ends upmaterializing in form. One arrives at form in architecture, but it is not a starting-point. I have repeated over and over again in defense ofthe importance of ideas, that forms are destructible; they disappear, while ideas remain. Nevertheless, ideas in architecture have to beconstructed and necessarily translated into forms.

  Beauty is not something superficial, vague or diffuse. It is something profound, precise and concrete that stirs the very foundations of man, that causes time to stand still and makes the work we create remain in time and in the memory of humankind, the kind of beauty thatis achieved in architecture as a result of rigorous, profound and dedicated work, which must be considered as a true labor of research.Each new project is for me an occasion to seek and find that beauty I so earnestly pursue. Not one of my projects has ever been “anotherone”. In each and every one of them I have given my all. Each and every one was conceived and designed with full intensity. With theintensity that derives from the conviction that creating is the most beautiful endeavor in the world.

  At the same time I have said NO many times to numerous projects in which I was not provided with sufficient freedom or where I didn’t consider them to be of sufficient interest to devote my time to them. There are those who may consider this to be a form of snobbery on my part. But I believe that this is the only way one can create, that one can live creating, living with the intensity that makes this lifeworthwhile. This is understood perfectly by all creators, poets and writers musicians and painters worth their salt. The true creator, thetrue architect is the one capable of achieving a work that transcends , as Stefan Zweig explained so well in his essay “The secret of artisticcreation”: “There is no greater delight or satisfaction than recognizing that man too can create imperishable values and that eternally weremain united to the Eternal through our supreme effort on earth: through art”.

  When José Bergamín writes about the verse of the Spanish poet, Jorge Manrique, he is so correct in his appreciation when he says:“The couplets have verified the miracle of converting a historic moment into an eternal moment before our very eyes”. Something like this,converting a historic moment into an eternal moment, is what I as an architect would like to achieve with my houses. Would that my workswere able to resist the passage of time and remain in the memory of humankind!

  住宅

  HOUSES

  但是我们讨论的是住宅。我不止一次写到,“一个建筑师就是一幢住宅”,因为那些建筑史上留名的建筑师都建造过有价值的住宅。比如,帕拉迪奥(Palladio) 和他的圆厅别墅,勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier) 和他的萨伏伊别墅。同样地,所有伟大的作家都创作过诗歌。例如,莎士比亚(Shakespeare) 或塞万提斯(Cervantes)。塞万提斯的部分诗作非常优美,而莎士比亚的十四行诗则神采超群。对于建筑师住宅就好比是诗歌,每个方面都必须竭尽全力,做到极致。

  所有住宅,包括我的住宅,都试图在某种意义可以被归类,成为原型。一幢住宅不仅仅是一幢房子,它还是对大量问题或奇思妙想的一套组合解决方案。它必须能够应对一切合理的具体要求,同时还要具有普遍性原则。当维特鲁威(Vitruvius) 指出为了实现优美和可爱,必须首先做到实用和坚固时,他是何等的正确。当亚历杭德罗·德拉索塔(Alejandro de la Sota) 要求我们,他的学生,设计“梦想住宅”时,他是何等的正确。因为,虽然“理性沉睡导致群魔乱舞”,但是为了创造,我们也必须“从一粒沙子看世界”。戈雅(Goya) 和布莱克(Blake) 是对的。理性和梦想,对于创造来说都是必不可少的。

  而我的住宅,正如它们在本书中所展示的,则以明确的不同类型回应设计中的各种考量。我希望这些住宅能够成为包含普遍原则的原型。它们分别属于秘密花园、封闭庭院、圣地和平台这样四个类型。它们是构筑的梦想。它们是能够让居住其中的人们“做梦”的建筑。

  有些建筑师喜欢盒子嵌套盒子的模式。我将这样的房子称为秘密花园,并将这一原理应用于我许多作品中。当项目周围现有景色乏善可陈时,我会设计一个向天空打开的盒子来创造自己的景色,然后在其中置入另外一个盒子,用于提供诸般生活功能。在我的住宅中,这些生活功能都面向和渗入第一个盒子围合的空间。萨拉戈萨的莫林内尔(Moliner)住宅就是这类住宅的典型例子之一。特尔加诺(Turegano) 住宅和加西亚马科斯(GarciaMarcos) 住宅,以及即将建成的卡拉(Cala) 住宅(均位于马德里)也都属于这一类型。此外还有加的斯的阿森西奥(Asencio) 住宅以及位于阿尔及利亚的住宅。在这些住宅中,底层均朝人为创造的封闭式花园开放。而底层以上的住宅显现出来,可以从上层远眺。

  另一类型是封闭庭院,完全由封闭庭院环绕的内向型住宅,例如加斯帕(Gaspar)住宅或古拉罗(Guerrero) 住宅。这些住宅完全封闭,具有绝对私密性,也正是为了达到这一效果,才建造了这些庭院。加斯帕住宅的庭院中种植了柠檬树,而古拉罗住宅则种植橙子树。两处住宅均在远端设计了水景。

  还有一些住宅属于圣地类型,它们建于高处的平台,在其上遥远的地平线成为主导的风景。约翰·伍重(Jorn Utzon) 在参观了高耸于森林之上的玛雅平台后,在其文章 《平台和高原》中对高台上景观与远方地平线的特殊关系曾作过精彩描述。正如同希腊人建造的卫城一样,圣地是神与人会面的场所。这些住宅的大部分公共区域都建造在下层建筑构成的平台之上,如同卫城之上的神庙。或者用森佩尔(Semper) 的术语说,将建构型式置于实体型式之上:如岩洞上的小屋。位于马德里的布拉斯(Blas) 住宅、位于纽约的欧尔尼克- 斯帕努(Olnick Spanu)住宅以及位于托莱多的鲁福(Rufo) 住宅都从根本上反映了这一主题。

  最后一类是裸露的平台,非常激进的设计,这类住宅上方没有任何遮挡物,住宅本身则强调了周围景观。置身这类住宅中,我们能够感到犹如置身于阿拉丁神奇飞毯上一般,穿越迎面而来的远处地平线景色。这类平展到极致的住宅,比如位于加的斯扎哈拉,面朝大西洋的VT 住宅。置身于它顶层的罗马洞石平台好似乘坐木筏一般漂流在水面之上。这是我在加的斯的新旧大教堂广场工程中用过的手法。而阿达尔贝托·利贝拉(AdalbertoLibera) 在卡普里岛上建造的宏伟的马拉巴特住宅,亦是这一类型的大师杰作。(编注:“平台”在精神上的特质与“圣地”很接近)

  But we are talking of houses. I have written more than once that “an architect is a house”. Because there is not a single architectfiguring in the History of Architecture who has not built a house that was worthwhile. Like Palladio with his Villa Rotonda or Le Corbusierwith his Villa Savoie. In the same way that there is not a great writer who has not written poetry. Like Shakespeare or Cervantes. Some ofCervantes’ poems are quite beautiful. And Shakespeare’s sonnets are sublime. For an architect houses are like poems where everythingmust be done with maximum intensity, until it hurts.

  Houses, my houses too, try in a sense to be types, to be archetypal. A house is not a house, but a sum of solutions to a multitude of problems or whims. A house has to respond to all that is reasonable, but to also be universal at the same time. How right was Vitruviuswhen, in order to reach Beauty, Venustas, he previously demanded that Utilitas and Firmitas be attained. How right was Alejandro de laSota when he asked us, his pupils, as a first exercise to design our “dream house”. Because while it is true that the “the sleep of reasonproduces monsters”, it is equally true that in order to create one has to “see the world in a grain of sand”. Goya and Blake were right.Reason and dreams, both are inseparably vital to all creations.

  And my houses, which now all appear in this book, respond in a way to very clear types. These houses want to be archetypal, universal.They are secret gardens, hortus conclusus, temenos or platforms. They are constructed dreams. They are constructions capable of makingthose who live in them dream.

  There are those that are like boxes within other boxes. I gave the name secret garden to some of those projects and I used thismechanism in many of my works. When the existing landscape is somewhat devoid of interest, I design a box open to the sky to createour own landscape, and then another box is placed inside to contain the various functions. In the case of these houses of mine the livingfunctions open onto this created space. Moliner House in Zaragoza is a clear example of this. And the same is true of the houses ofTurégano and García Marcos and the future Cala House, all in Madrid. Asencio in Cadiz, and the houses in Algeria. In all of them the houseat ground level opens onto the garden enclosure, to the created garden. Later the house emerges and looks out from above onto theviews in the distance.

  There are those that are hortus conclusus, completely introverted houses protected by patios, like the Gaspar or the Guerrero houses.They are completely enclosed, absolutely intimate and in these patios nature is recreated. With lemon trees in Gaspar House and orangetrees in Guerrero house. And water at the far end in both of them.

  There are other houses like temenos, platforms on high from which the landscape of far-off horizons is dominated. Described so wellby Jorn Utzon in his essay Platforms and Plateaux after visiting the Mayan platforms astride the tree-tops, which established a specialrelationship with the distant horizon. Just as the Greeks did with their acropolis, temenos a meeting-place where the gods encounteredmen. And on these platforms, as if they were podiums, like the temples on the acropolis, the most public parts of the house areconstructed. Or, in the terminology of Semper, where the tectonic piece is placed on the stereotomic podium: the cabin on the cave. Firstthe Blas House in Madrid and then the Olnick Spanu in New York as well as Rufo House in Toledo all translate this topic radically.

  And finally there are houses that are denuded platforms, radical houses, with nothing above them, houses that underline the landscape. In them we feel as if we are on board Aladdin’s magic flying carpet and are penetrating the landscape of the far-off approachinghorizon. A horizontal plane understood in a most radical way, as is the VT House, facing the Atlantic Ocean, in Zahara-Cadiz, where theRoman travertine platform, supreme, appears to float above the waters and we are on a raft. What I had already done in the BetweenCathedrals project in Cadiz. What Adalberto Libera had achieved so masterfully and on such a grand scale in Malaparte House in Capri.

  改变人的住宅

  HOUSES THAT TRANSFORM PEOPLE

  在这些住宅中,人们快乐地生活,并改变和提升自我。我与这些住宅的房主们融洽相处,每次回到这些住宅,我就好比回到自己家一样。这些住宅都是在严格控制预算的情况下建造的,这一方面保证了没有缺失,另一方面也杜绝了一切虚浮的东西。这些住宅采用简单合理的材料施工,一如美国语言学家斯特伦克(Strunk) 和E.B. 怀特(E.B. White) 主张的“略去一切无用之语”。或者更准确的说,根据密斯·凡·德罗(Mies Van derRohe) 的“少即是多”的精神。

  住宅,或者说建筑,不应仅仅为了建筑师的自我展示,或者更等而下之,仅仅为满足房主不切实际和反复无常的幻想而存在。建筑师必须仔细倾听客户的意见,考虑客户的需要,预算,建筑地点,以及其它方方面面。此外,建筑师还必须发现房主并未明确想到的要求。就好比像医生治疗病人一般,试图了解所有的事情。因为归根结底项目就好比是诊断结果,是对病人或是房主需求的响应。说服客户是实现最优结果的最有效工具。

  但是令人遗憾的是,现在的好多住宅都是对建筑师和客户的奇思异想的实体化,结果就是建成的住宅就好比是恐怖博物馆。

  在本书所发表的住宅中,我努力试图找到完备的答案,此外更重要的,诚如我在本文开头所主张的,探索和发现我不断追求的美。

  因此,这些住宅能够改变其居住者,使其更文雅、更有教养、更宽厚,简而言之,就是更快乐。

  In these houses people live happily and in a way they are transformed and made better. I am on very friendly terms with all theirowners and I always return to them as if I were going home to my own place.

  All these houses were done with tightly controlled budgets, ensuring on the one hand that nothing was missing, but nothing superfluous either. With sober and simple materials. With that spirit reflected so well by the American linguists Strunk and E.B. White intheir proposal to “omit needless words”. Or better still, in compliance with the “less is more” of Mies Van der Rohe.

  No house, nor indeed any architecture, should exist merely to showcase the architect, or, worse still, to satisfy the uncontrolled whimsand caprices of its owners. One has to listen carefully to the client and take on board his or her needs, budget, and the place where it is tobe built - so many things. And one must endeavor to discover requirements that the owner may well not have clearly thought out. Actingrather like the doctor with a patient, trying to know everything. Because in the end a project is rather like a diagnosis, a response to be metas to what the patient, or the owner, needs. Convincing the client is the best tool for achieving optimum results.

  It is regrettable that many of the houses built today represent the materialization of a whole series of vagaries of both architect andclient and end up rather like horror museums.

  In my houses, the ones that are published here today, I strive to come up with an adequate response and moreover, as I have argued

  from the very beginning, to search and find in them that ever so fervently sought-after beauty.

  And so, these houses have the capacity to transform their inhabitants. To make them more cultured, more educated, more generous:in a word, happier.

  不仅仅是住宅

  MORE THAN JUST HOUSES

  读到这里,人们可能会问:怎么可能在这样一些住宅中找到所谓的美?这种美,大写的美,难道不是更直观,更合乎逻辑的展现在那些辉煌的大尺度重要建筑中吗?

  我也有幸设计了诸如格拉纳达储蓄银行总部或萨莫拉的办公室这样一些可以称得上“重要”的作品并在其中达成了富有高度张力的空间。但是我想说的是,在我的住宅作品中,同样可以感受到这种难以言喻的强烈张力。这些住宅都存在双重性质:一方面,在实现要求的功能方面无可挑剔,另一方面,也是更重要的,它们使时光停滞,具备使其经久不衰的效果。居住者们能够意识到他们不仅仅能够快乐地居住其中,而且能够体验到远远超出住宅的意义。

  当贝尔尼尼(Bernini) 用白色大理石打造冥王普拉东诱拐美丽的冥后珀尔塞福涅(Persephone) 的场景时,他向我们展示的不仅仅是场景的描述和雕塑的美感,还有他使坚硬的卡拉拉大理石变成柔软,甚至令人毛骨悚然的能力。他善于运用他所使用的材料,使其弯曲、圆滑。他的作品不仅仅是简单地反映了一个场景。冥王强有力的手紧握住珀尔塞福涅纤弱的大腿,从而点明了雕塑的趣味,即通过坚硬体现柔软。这是创造者设定的永恒主题,即超越叙事,在雕塑中超越雕塑自身。

  往往有这样的情况,对于美的探索与对自由的探索是一致的。在建筑中对自由的探索既来自对绝对理性的信仰,又来自我们的梦想,而这种探索达成的真理无不凝聚着极度的美。正如英国诗人济慈(Keats) 在《希腊古瓮颂》中所描述的,“美即是真,真即是美,这就是一切”。

  And having said all this, an obvious argument might be: how is it possible to find this so-called beauty merely in some houses? Would it not be more logical and simpler, to look for this beauty, this BEAUTY in capital letters, in major buildings with the corresponding space andlarge-scale dimensions where architecture can show itself off with greater splendor?

  I have been fortunate in achieving that intense spatial tension in some of my works such as the Caja de Granada Savings Bank headquarters or the Offices in Zamora and in some other works that we could describe as ‘major’. But I would like to say that theintense tension of architecture is also to be found ineffably in my houses. They all have that double condition: on the one hand, they areimpeccable in their fulfillment of the functions requested, while on the other hand, and above all, they have the virtue of making timestand still. Their inhabitants are conscious of the fact that not only do they live happily in them but there is more to it than that. They aremore than just houses.

  When the wise hand of Bernini reveals the white marble of the beautiful Persephone abducted by Pluto, what he is showing us basically, over and above the description of the scene and the beauty of the sculpture, is his capability of making the hard Carrara marbleappear soft, even morbid. He manages to dominate his material, bending it and making it pliable. Something more, much more universalthan simply representing a scene. The strong hand of Pluto squeezes Persephone’s delicate thigh and therein resides the interest of thesculpture, where he manages to render soft that which is hard in appearance. Once again we have an example of the creator setting up auniversal theme, going beyond the mere telling of a story. Something more than just a sculpture.

  Sometimes, always, the search for beauty coincides with the search for freedom. Searching in architecture for the freedom derived from the radicalism of indisputable reason in tune with our dreams always ends up in truth culminating in beauty. As the English poetKeats described so well in his Ode on a Grecian Urn: “beauty is truth, truth beauty, that is all”.

  文_阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨/Alberto Campo Baeza

关注读览天下微信, 100万篇深度好文, 等你来看……