阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨建筑作品中的连续性和自然性

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨,建筑作品,墙壁
  • 发布时间:2014-04-25 09:20

  进入21 世纪,我们目睹了许多建筑师将墙壁弯曲、将地板折叠而创造出的建筑奇观。为了抵抗重力的垂直作用和地面的水平参考,他们将建筑师们过去创造出的建筑景观进行各种折叠,并坚决捍卫只有他们觉得能站得住脚的理论,但这些理论实际上没什么逻辑,实在是难以理解。

  At the gates of the 21st century, we witnessed the spectacle that some architects offer as they bend the walls and fold the floors of their works. Against the vertical logic of gravity and the horizontal reference of the floor plane, they fold the “landscapes” they’ve created and defend theories only they find defensible and that are barely understood outside of a context in which logic seems to have no place.

  就算他们使用了十分复杂的机制来实施项目,连续性和自然性的主题在他们设计的项目中依然得以体现。皱褶、新的领地、不规则形状、液态空间,还有数字化景观经常被应用于这类建筑中。空间的连续性并不一定意味着使用相同材料达到施工上的简单一致。垂直元素一直以来都是和水平元素相独立的,并且以不同的形式进行发展演变。而现在试图结合两者,通过技术支持将建筑作为正式实验和程序的载体呈现出来,似乎会令我们的居所显得过于疯狂。

  The themes of Continuity and Nature appear in their design projects, even as they employ complicated mechanisms to carry them out.Pleats, new territories, fractals, liquid spaces and data-landscapes are commonly used in these architectures. The continuity of space does not necessarily imply a constructive continuity of the same material. Vertical elements have always been independent from horizontal elements and have evolved in a different manner. To try now to unite them, presenting architecture as a body of formal experiments and procedures supported by technology, in the media and in theory, seems to lead to the madness of forms and spaces in which we now live.

  诸多的概念图中充满了原始功能抽象化、解码和液化,在这种情况下讨论古典建筑,讨论空间、光线、材质和测量可能会觉得非常奇怪。然而,仍有许多建筑师大张旗鼓地明确使用这些概念来进行建筑创作。

  In the midst of so many conceptual diagrams, proto-functional abstractions, de-codifications and fluids, it may seem strange to speak of classical architecture, to speak of Space, Light, Matter and Measure. And yet, there are still architects who seem to construct with these concepts. Resoundingly and clearly.

  连续性和自然性在古典建筑中已经得以体现。恢宏的帕台农神庙面向地中海绝美的风景矗立在卫城的最高点,其内部流动的光线、完美的建筑比例,无一不在向世人们展示着希腊建筑和自然之间和谐的统一。

  Continuity and Nature already appear in classical architecture. When the mass of the Parthenon is observed drawn against the Mediterranean landscape, its light, its perfect proportions, and the horizontal plane on which it is set, one can easily appreciate the relationship between Greek architecture and nature.

  大海是体现在希腊风景和希腊人民生活中最重要的元素之一。作为借鉴,希腊建筑师首先尝试创造了一个如同大海一般的水平面。他们建造了一个巨大的高台,使人们能轻易地联想到海平线,然后将庙宇建造在高台上,创造出“船只在海上乘风破浪”的感觉,建立起建筑和周围环境之间复杂的关联。

  The Greek architects, as a first operation, create a horizontal plane that refers to one of the most important elements that has the greatest presence in their landscape and in their lives: the sea. They construct podiums that recall the horizontal line of the sea in order afterwards to set their temples on top of them, like “ships on the sea” and establish complex relationships between them and their surroundings.

  建筑师们十分了解当地的气候。庙宇的门廊如同滤网一样,透过门廊的立柱,建筑师们将户外开阔的空间、室内的保护区域和门廊结合成独有的风景。

  They know the climate they inhabit and incorporate open spaces, protected areas and porticos that become filters for the view of the landscape through their columns.

  通过这种微妙而细腻的方式,庙宇既和自然背景形成对比,同时又将自然景观融入到建筑空间中。然而,这里说的建筑空间只是外部的空间,而内部空间在庙宇中是不存在的,因为“the cela”是神的居所,并不是适用于人类的空间。所有的活动都在建筑外部进行,在庙宇周围,立柱中间或是在高台上。

  In a subtle and delicate manner, the temples contrast with the natural backdrop and at the same time incorporate nature into their constructed space. However, this constructed space is an exterior space because the interior space of the temple does not exist and what does, “the cela”, is the place of the gods and there is no room for man in it. All activity takes place outside, around the temple, among the columns, on the podium.

  1992 年,坎波·巴埃萨完成了他的上一个住宅建筑作品,加斯帕住宅,七年过去了,这栋住宅依然能带给人神奇的感觉。根据业主的期望和周围的环境条件,在现有的水平面上仅靠简简单单的几面墙,在墙与墙之间就创造出带有内部空间的建筑。

  It was1992 when Campo Baeza constructed his last house; seven years have passed now since that magical Casa Gaspar. Then, a horizontal plane already existed, by which, with no more than walls, and between them, an architecture was created that turned itself over to an interior space, due to the wishes of the owner and the conditions of the surroundings.

  加斯帕住宅明确地展现出了建筑的连续性和自然属性。而下面要提到的德布拉斯住宅,是坎波·巴埃萨最近完成的住宅建筑作品,则使用了截然不同的表现手法。

  Continuity and Nature appear clearly in the Casa Gaspar, if in a very different way from what is now presented in Casa Blas, his most recently constructed house.

  因为缺少自然景观,加斯帕住宅中人工创造了庭院里柠檬树的香气,一池清水中的倒影,还有粉刷雪白的院墙外松树和天空相互映衬的景致。这些院墙对地面和柠檬树的强调将周遭纷扰的环境隔绝开,但同时又帮助建筑跟松树和遥远的天空建立了联系。多亏了这些院墙,人们可以在这明亮而宁静的氛围中好奇院墙外面究竟有何种景色,通过想象创造一个全新的世界。

  Because nature does not exist in Casa Gaspar, it had to be created. With the aroma of the lemon trees in the courtyards, the reflections of a sheet of water and the suggestive view of the pine trees and the sky through the whitewashed walls. These walls exclude the context at the same time that they heighten the immediate, accentuating the presence of the grounds and the tree, and also include distant space,the pines and the sky. Thanks to the wall, one can imagine what there is behind it and thus create a new world on a luminous and tranquil grounds.

  由于空间的连续性是受局限的,只有玻璃才能很好地将两个空间连续起来,然而庭院中柠檬树种植位置的选择,还有铺满室内外全部地面的石材都体现出了建筑的整体感。垂直竖立的墙体塑造出平面空间的延续感,墙体从内向外围绕,很明显有助于建立所需的由外而内,由内而外的空间连续性。外部空间介于墙体之间,成为内部空间向外的延伸,使内外空间形成一个整体。

  Because the continuity of space is partial and only exists here where the glass meets, nonetheless, thanks to the placement of the treesand the stone floor that covers the entire surface of the floor plan, its presence is felt throughout the entire house. The vertical wallsconstruct a horizontal space, and their movement from the interior to the exterior enclosure clearly contributes to establishing the desiredexterior-interior-exterior continuity of the space. The outside space is contained between walls in order to then produce an extension ofthe inside space towards this controlled exterior, making the two merge into one.

  而阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨在最新的作品德布拉斯住宅中建造了一个水平面,如同希腊建筑师数世纪前用诗意、精准和情感进行的创作一样。

  Alberto Campo Baeza’s latest project constructs a horizontal plane, asthe Greek architects did centuries before: with poetry, precisionand emotion.

  建筑师在水平面划定出一个高台,高台上用一个轻巧的白色屋顶加以强调。水平的屋顶和地面勾画出一个阳光充沛、景色优美的水平空间。

  The floor plan delimits a podium and a white and light roof underlines it. Both horizontal walls construct a horizontal space full of natureand light.

  高台的混凝土实体部分安排了休息和餐饮区域,其中被服务的部分位于正面朝南,服务的部分位于背面朝北,划分清晰。而建构部分由钢和玻璃组成的立方体,由于能直接观赏到遥远的天际和近处周围的景色,因此可以作为起居空间和冥想空间。

  The stereotomic concrete podium, where the areas for sleeping and eating are developed, is organized clearly with one face to the north ofserved elements and a back to the south of service elements. The tectonic nature of the steel and glass cube that takes advantage of theviews of the distant horizon and the immediate surroundings is proposed as the areas for living and thinking. To look and to dream.

  这一建筑使用了完全不同的两种操作手法,以实现空间品质和实体结构两种不同可能性的最优化。

  The effective mechanism of operating by contrast is used in this house, to find in opposition the best spatial qualities and materialspossible.

  建筑下部的混凝土箱体结实有力而又简洁,如同索塔回顾他拜访勒·柯布西耶位于柏林的寓所时所说的“不完美的外观”,这用一种简明的方式形容出了建筑的材质和结构。

  The concrete prism, strong, convincing, and unfussy, “imperfect in its appearance”- as de Sota said when recalling a visit from Le Corbusier to his Unit of Habitation of Berlin-expresses the material and construction in a clear manner.

  自然性通过三种不同形式融合在了该建筑中。自然的光线和天空的景色透过高处朝南开口的小窗被引入建筑内。建筑的一端凿出的一池清水将自然景观倒映入池中。同样运用于加斯帕住宅的清水,在这里把建造的水平面(高台)和支撑的水平面(屋顶)直接建立了微妙的平衡。还有朝北的墙上开出的窗口如同把窗外的风景镶嵌在墙上的画框里一样。这三种形式中只有一种对建筑尺寸进行了改变。

  Nature is incorporated in this volume in the form of three different situations. Nature abstracted in light and sky from the small high openings situated in the south. Nature transformed into the reflections that the water dug out at one of its ends produces. Water, alsopresent in the Gaspar House, establishes a subtle balance between the created plane (the podium) and the supported plane (the roof). AndNature framed inside of the wall by means of the openings cut out in it to the north. Only one of them changes its dimensions.

  钢制屋顶平面提供了创造空间的可能,而玻璃盒子正好填充了它。屋顶平面由八根双面U型钢立柱支撑,从高台平面到屋顶平面的高度为226 厘米。屋顶平面和立柱全部漆成白色,如同一张白色的桌子一样,和下方的混凝土高台形成了鲜明的对比,从而显示出建筑的精致和完美。这也继续印证了索塔所说的“像德国人一样永远在追求完美”。

  The steel roof is a plane capable of creating space and the glass box equips it. The plane is sustained by eight double profile, U-section steel columns, 226 cm. from the plane of the podium. Plane and columns are all painted white. The “white table” thus created in contrast tothe concrete podium, reveals a precise and perfect construction—continuing the de Sota quote, made almost “by Germans always tendingtowards perfection.”

  自然性在建筑的整个空间里都得以体现。在高台的内部,“我们能够看到风景”,而在高台上,“我们能够看到自己置身于风景中”。这样一来,高台和屋顶成为不可分割的,因为我们对任一空间的感受都和另一空间的体验息息相关。

  Nature is present here in the entire space. While from the interior of the podium, “one sees landscape”, above it “one sees one self in thelandscape”. In this way, it is not possible to separate the podium from the plane. Because the understanding of the space of one is closelyrelated to the experience of the space of the other.

  正如建筑师奥伊萨所说,就像一艘船能为海景增色,德布拉斯住宅不仅没有毁掉风景,反而通过一种独到的体验风景的方式令风景的作用得以提升。

  Just as a ship enhances the seascape, as Oíza said, the Blas House, far from destroying the landscape, elevates it by proposing a different way of experiencing it.

  建筑北面是一个超过14 米覆盖植被的向下的斜坡,人们走向该建筑,会觉得这像是一个漂浮在半空中的白色平面一样。越往上走,混凝土实体平台显露出来,人们这才能看到整个平面如同被光线托起一样,华丽地悬在空中。

  Immersed in nature, on a lot oriented towards the north and with a more than fourteen meters slope, upon arriving one perceives it as no more than the white floating plane, so that, as one ascends, the concrete prism is revealed and one finally contemplates the entire plane inits splendor suspended by the light.

  两个平面之间形成的空间感显而易见。在这样的小尺度里制造出多种空间状态(水、外部空间、外部空间到屋顶、内部到外部空间),并且状态之间界限模糊。在加斯帕住宅中,空间状态之间的界限建造得十分清晰,尽管如此,空间的连续性还是很好地体现出来。但这两个建筑作品的共同点是,建筑师建造了一个没有任何褶皱或变形的连续的水平空间,使得自然在其中获得了非凡的重要性。

  The spatial intensity defined between the two planes is brutal. In such small dimensions, many different spatial situations are produced (water, exterior, exterior-roof, interior-exterior) whose limits appear blurred and confused. These limits in the Gaspar House appear constructed and are clear and even so, the continuity of the space is also present. In both houses, a continuous and horizontal space isconstructed without folds or fractals, in which nature acquires extraordinary importance.

  连续盒子水平空间的体验和洒落在空间边界上的光线是密不可分的。因此当水平观察时,玻璃盒子就像不透明的墙围成四方盒子的空间,但想象俯视的时候,玻璃墙就变得完全透明甚至消失,使得内外空间融为一体。此外,玻璃房子位于高台上偏北的位置,这就制造出建筑物朝着远处橡树林和高山前进的动感。

  The experience of the continuous and horizontal space is intimately tied to the light falling on its limits. In this way, the glass box becomes a “box of walls” with wholly opaque matter when it is observed on its plane, or it disappears, making the inside outside when seenperpen dicularly, and it becomes entirely transparent. Furthermore, it is decentered on the podium, moving towards the north, advancingtowards the distant landscape of holm oaks and mountains.

  无论是介于垂直的墙壁还是介于水平的墙壁,无论是自然性还是发端于自然,无论是借助现有的平面还是建造一个新的平面,阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨将不朽的价值注入到他所有的建筑作品中。超越时代、流行和风格的局限,穿过时间的流逝,他建造了一个属于21 世纪的希腊神庙,并将禁闭的“cela”,神灵的恢宏、黑暗与神秘改造成一个使人们感受到快乐的透明发光的盒子。

  Whether between vertical walls or between horizontal walls, creating nature or starting from it, starting from a horizontal plane that already exists or creating one where it doesn’t, Alberto Campo Baeza brings the timeless value of architecture into his work. Beyond theperiods, fashions and styles, flying over time, he constructs a Greek temple at the gates of the 21st century and transforms its closed “cela”the massive, dark, secret of the gods, into a transparent and luminous box for the pleasure of man.

  他建造了一个漂浮在半空中的水平面。

  He constructs a horizontal plane to float in the air.

  在这里,在光线中,人们伸手就能触碰到天空、云朵还有微风。

  From it, one has access to the sky, the clouds, the breeze. In the light.

  在这里,人们和大自然合二为一。

  From it, one sees only nature in continuity.

  在这里,人们不仅看到了优美的风景,更看到了遥远和安宁。

  And its visual experience produces a feeling of distance and of peace.

  文_劳尔·冈萨雷斯

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