建立一个水平面:关于纽约加里森的欧尔尼克- 斯帕努住宅

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:住宅,原始人,平台
  • 发布时间:2014-04-25 09:52

  建造一栋住宅意味着建立一个参考点。当原始人尝试要盖房子的时候,做的第一件事情就是选择一个地点,并且将地面铲平,因为人们必须建立一个水平的基面并让自己置身于平面之上以抵抗地心引力。实际上“建立”的英文单词establishing 提到了table,即“平台”,在平台上人们的生活得以展开。

  To create a house means ESTABLISHING a reference point. When the primitive man wanted to build a house, the first thing he did was choose a site, and right there he flattened the ground, because the human body inexorably responds to the law of gravity, and needs a horizontal datum to establishing oneself on. In fact, the word “establishing” is already talking of the “table” upon which life unfolds.

  哈德逊河上的住宅建在一个特殊的地点:位于纽约州加里森镇一座山的最高处,西点军校前方,俯瞰哈德逊河。

  The Olnick Spanu Residence is erected in an exceptional location: at the highest point of a hill in the town of Garrison, NY overlooking the Hudson River, in front of West Point.

  整个场地是一片开阔壮丽的水平景观:背靠群山面对大河。这个地方拥有令人一见难忘的美丽。

  The site is a vast horizontal landscape with the mountains in the background and the river in the foreground. It is a place of impressive beauty.

  我们在一定高度的位置创造了一个水平面,这样我们站在上面就如同漂浮在河流中一般。

  We create a HORIZONTAL PLANE at a certain height and in such disposition that standing on it feels like if we were floating over the river.

  为了使这个水平面具体化,我们平行于河道沿着地势用钢筋混凝土和石块建造了一个122英尺长、54英尺宽、12英尺高的平台。

  In order to materialize that HORIZONTAL PLANE, we built a PODIUM in reinforced CONCRETE and STONE, linked to the ground, parallel to the course of the river, which dimensions are 122 feet by 54 feet by 12 feet high.

  混凝土高台的内部分配了住宅的大部分私密功用:卧室和浴室,健身房和艺术陈列室。它像是一个山洞,一个地下室,当我们打开窗户,方形的窗框好像把室外的风景框裱起来挂在墙上一般,拉远了风景和人之间的距离。

  This concrete PODIUM will allocate the most private functions of the house: The bedrooms and bathrooms, the gym and the main exhibit gallery. It is a CAVE, a BASEMENT where we open square windows, which framing the landscape, objectify it, distancing the view from the viewer.

  这个水平面的建立是该住宅的主题,我们用方形石砖和罗马洞石(和建筑师密斯·凡·德罗在其作品范斯沃斯住宅中使用的洞石相同)建造了这个高台。我们尝试将高台扎根于土地中,这样站在高台上更能强调和渲染四周的景观,而进入高台里,周围的景色就好像和人们隔开了。

  The establishment of this HORIZONTAL PLANE is the main theme of this house. We built it with square stone tiles, roman travertine;the same travertine Mies Van Der Rohe used in his Farnsworth House. A horizontal plane that will be bright since it will receive all the sunlight. Mies made a floating plane. We try to do it but rooted, linked to the earth. This HORIZONTAL PLANE is UNDERLINIG the landscape, like if we were entering in it, closing the view from the viewer.

  而在高台上面,为了挡风遮雨我们又建造了一个9英尺高的水平面:它像个大帽子,也像一个100英尺长、40英尺宽、9英尺高的大餐桌,用2排5根柱子按照20英尺×20英尺等距离分布支撑。屋顶延建筑两侧悬挑10英尺。

  And over the PODIUM, to cover it and gain SHADE, we erect another HORIZONTAL plane at 9 feet over the floor: like a HAT, like a big TABLE of 100 feet by 40 feet by 9 feet high supported by 5 plus 5 equidistant columns in a 20 feet by 20 feet grid. The roof plane cantilevers 10 feet out from the four corner columns.

  在这块巨大的全白平板下,我们建造了一个94英尺长、25英尺宽、9英尺高的透明玻璃立方体。

  Under this immense board, all white, we built a transparent glass box of 94 feet by 25 feet.by 9 feet high.

  这个像大瓮一样的玻璃立方体分配了住宅的大部分公共职能:图书馆、客厅、餐厅以及厨房。它就像是高台上的一个小屋(有趣的是小屋和帽子的英文发音几乎一样)。

  This glass box is an URN which will allocate the most public functions of the house: the library, the living room, the dinning room and the kitchen. It is like a HUT (note that hut and hat sound almost identical).

  2排5根按照20英尺×20英尺等距离分布的柱子结构要求在外立面的中间竖立一根柱子,就像每一座经典的寺庙,例如帕特农神庙,众所周知这么长的外墙一定会有一根中心柱。

  The STRUCTURAL ORDER of 5 plus 5 equidistant columns in a 20 by 20feet grid forces the need of a column in the center of the fa.ade,like the well know centered column in the long fa.ade of every classic temple like the Parthenon.

  所有的这些设置只是将肯尼思·弗兰普顿继戈特弗里德·森佩尔的观点之后的总结进行了具体化:在实体形式的底部上竖立一个建构形式。并且我们可以从该建筑中清晰地识别出泽姆佩尔提出的“建筑四要素”:基座、炉灶、框架以及轻重量的围合表面。

  All this intervention is just a materialization of what Kenneth Frampton proposes after Gotfried Semper’s work: a TECTONIC piece erected on a ESTEREOTOMIC basement. And we can clearly recognize the four “Semperian” elements: the “earthwork”, the “hearth”, the “framework” and the “lightweight enclosing membrane”.

  再总结一次,该建筑就像被地平线分割开的山洞上的小屋。地平线是天与地的交汇,是建构形式和实体形式的分割,也是山洞和小屋的界限。

  Summarizing, once again, the HUT on the CAVE separated by the line of the HORIZON. Because What is the HORIZON but the limit between the earth and the sky, between stereotomic and tectonic, between the cave and the hut?

  通过竭尽全力地精确而又严谨的尝试,使关于该住宅的构想得以实现,我们也希望,当这栋充满美感的建筑完工时,建筑之美也随之永存。“我们期待着那一刻”,如同纽约哥伦比亚大学校园的日晷基地所刻写的一样。

  And after the attempt of maximum precision and rigor in the materialization of the IDEA that generated this house, and we hope that once we finished this BEAUTY, beauty would come to live in it. HORAM EXPECTA VENIET, as is written in the sun dial base presiding over the Columbia University campus in New York.

  文_阿尔伯托·坎波·巴埃萨

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