位于实验中心的五位创作者

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 12:33

  二十年来,中国经历着前所未有的快速的城市扩张,并转变成一个巨大的试验场。这种转变无处不在,无论是大都会还是在城市的角落。在这一新的城市发展进程中,标志性建筑遍地开花:例如在北京,有由保罗·安德鲁设计的中国国家大剧院,由赫尔佐格和德梅隆事务所设计、艾未未作为顾问的北京奥运会主体育场“鸟巢”,以及由雷姆·库哈斯设计的中央电视台总部大楼……而2010年以“城市,让生活更美好”为主题的上海世界博览会更是将“地标”的主题推向极致,这也正是此类短期活动的一般规律。

  在中国绝无仅有的高速发展状态中,欧洲的建筑师、城市规划师和景观设计师通过他们的思考和创造为大城市的变化做出了贡献。在全球化背景下,大型设计机构和优秀的建筑事务所顺理成章地参与到中国城市的建设中。接着,王澍凭借宁波博物馆而开辟了新的设计道路,并于2012年获得了普利兹克建筑奖。该奖项被认为是建筑界的诺贝尔奖,他是第一个获得此奖项的中国建筑师。而他是法国的朋友。

  在中法建交五十周年之际,这一期反映法国建筑典型的专刊向大家呈现了五位当代顶尖的建筑师。单黛娜和A3协会自90年代起就开始关注他们了。正如所有的典型一样,它是不全面的,但却很好的展现了法国建筑创造的活力。拥有批判的态度、独特的风格,这是五位以各自不同的方式参与当代城市复杂性讨论的创作者。

  他们之中最年轻的是游走于艺术和建筑之间的迪埃·福斯蒂诺。这一独特的定位从未被掩饰,并促使他在不同的尺度进行实验。

  有时作品的尺度小至他想像中的装置。而在每一次的创作中,他所注重的都是重新定义身体和空间的关系。在2000年威尼斯建筑双年展上,迪埃·福斯蒂诺响应了总策展人马希米亚诺·福克萨斯关于“少一些美学,多一些伦理”的号召,展出了作品“运输中的身体”,用最小的空间诠释了对于偷渡者流动性的反思。对大型建筑群楼梯空间进行思考的里斯本“通往天堂的台阶”,在巴黎新轻轨线路上搭建的小塔“1平米住宅”,以及他在北京首届双年展上所展示的混合公寓,无疑都反映了他对界限进行实验的立场。正因如此,他被邀请进行实验性住宅的设计便是顺理成章的事情了:他为艺术家法布里斯·伊贝尔在法国设计的住宅体现了打开墙面以消除室内外界线的设计构思。此外,在西班牙巴塞罗那南部的“独立住宅”项目中,他试图“让人们体验不同于自然的经验”。迪埃·福斯蒂诺介入并再造了建筑与地景的共生关系,与他共同参与这一项目的建筑师包括来自日本的藤本壮介和来自智利的佩佐·冯·艾利赫夏森夫妇。

  欧蒂娜·戴克与其合伙人伯努瓦·科尔内特(于1998年去世)在90年代初期凭借位于雷恩市郊的西部人民银行总部迅速赢得了国际声誉。1996年他们在威尼斯建筑双年展上获得金狮奖,这是对这些受到高技派影响的“新兴建筑师”的肯定,当时高技派在英国非常流行,以理查德·罗杰斯设计的伦敦劳埃德大厦为代表。这个作品在当时将欧蒂娜·戴克他们与二十世纪末法国主流的“新现代主义”区别开来。但成为他们代表作的却是1993年在格勒诺布尔的勒玛卡赞艺术中心展出的装置作品“高压”。这一作品后来被选用为艾莱克塔2003年出版的专刊的首页,它所定义的设计线路即使在伯努瓦·科尔内特去世后仍然被遵循。欧蒂娜·戴克同时也从室内设计层面深化方案,可以清楚的看到,她对空间进行实验的兴趣丝毫没有背离对材质的感性追求,颜色的选择始终遵循着最初的定义:红与黑。罗马Macro当代艺术博物馆与扎哈·哈迪德的罗马21世纪当代艺术博物馆同期开幕,出人意料的公共空间塑造了建筑的第五立面。在博物馆参观流线的终点(类似雷恩Frac中心),破碎的体量与艺术家奥蕾莉·内穆尔的作品“二十世纪的排列”形成对位关系,成为与众不同的城市公共空间范例。远不同于任何博物馆,流动性是丹吉尔新港轮渡终点站项目的核心问题。欧蒂娜·戴克的方案在这里首次被贴上了有机建筑的标签,此前她从未对这种建筑风格进行过探索。建筑的有机性体现在破土而出的建筑在整体走势上与船舶的往返路线一致。

  弗雷德里克·博雷尔是一位建筑风格十分明显的设计师,但却并未局限于一种风格。师承于包赞巴克*流派,但他却有意识地与其导师拉开距离,并发展了自己的建筑语汇。很早,他便树立了自己对于建筑-雕塑实验的兴趣,他为巴黎地区的设计格局提供多样性,无论是住宅还是学校。正是在奥斯曼城市,他设想了城市以小街块进行发展的图景。他在塑造建筑的同时也塑造着空间,将公共空间置于其设计方案的核心位置。建筑塑造与城市规划是不可分割的。从奥贝尔康夫路(巴黎十一区为邮政人员设计的住宅楼)到约二十年后在鲁昂敏感区设计的社会住房综合体,弗雷德里克·博雷尔都设法让城市具有个性,让其具有关联、变得更加亲民。他将法国北部贝蒂讷的社会住房设计成“社会城堡”,这不是为了哗众取宠,而是基于他对背景因素的考虑,将建筑与该区以“工业城堡”闻名的工厂建立联系。对于巴黎的另一座工厂,弗雷德里克·博雷尔提出了重新利用首都工业遗迹的设计方案,将塞纳河谷建筑学院置于其中。在这一项目中,工厂在复兴的同时紧凑地向外扩张了两倍,成为城市发展的缩影。

  至于让·努维尔,他师从于克罗德·巴夯,从那里习得建筑的对抗感,并将之运用到极致、在建筑中创造危机感。其激进的建筑宣言包括“纳莫修斯”社会住宅,这一于八十年代末期建于尼姆的实验性社会住宅项目,对他来说是一次向桎梏建筑设计的标准规范进行挑战的机会。此后,他主张“漂亮的住宅是大的住宅”。他于2008年获得普利兹克建筑奖,以表彰他杰出的建筑作品(包括许多文化建筑)。例如立面采用当代阿拉伯式遮窗格栅的阿拉伯世界学院,在朱西耶(Jussieu)校园中传递了新的美学标准;又如,巴黎卡地亚基金会,这座透明的建筑以层叠的玻璃幕墙环绕着著名的夏多布里昂雪松。其他的例子包括拥有超薄出挑屋顶的瑞士琉森文化会议中心,以及继圣家族大教堂之后作为加泰罗尼亚首府新地标的巴塞罗那的阿格拔塔,其外皮形成了多种颜色的像素拼接效果。2010年让·努维尔赢得了北京中国美术馆的设计竞赛,在等待项目完成的这段时间内,他设计了有着巨大的、可以让光线穿过的穹顶的阿布达比卢浮宫,以及位于多哈的被称为沙漠玫瑰的卡塔尔国家博物馆。

  他说他“喜欢通过转译和重新解读来适应建筑永恒的主题”。在巴黎,他设计的巴黎爱乐大厅弥补了这座音乐之城整体的不足。

  坐落于拉维莱特公园,这座建筑紧邻环城大道,让·努维尔设想通过连续的坡道连接建筑与公共空间,向克罗德·巴夯致敬。

  克罗德·巴夯的作品充满力量且态度鲜明,不过多地寻求形态上的英雄主义而着力于批判性地进行空间实验。核心的理念是将体量置于运动中。因此产生了“功能斜面”,这是与保罗·维希留共同提出和发展的理论。他的同伴都是像沃尔夫·德·普瑞克斯,弗兰克·盖里或汤姆·梅恩这样活跃在国际舞台上的人物,许多年轻建筑师都将他视为精神领袖。他代表了自由和对抗。位于讷韦尔的圣贝尔纳黛特班雷教堂,粗制混凝土体量突破了碉堡的外在意向升华为和平的象征,体现了巴夯的激进主义。

  桑斯商场,混凝土条块斜插入地面,这是克罗德·巴夯所创造的最大的斜线,在消费主义时代为定义商业建筑提供了新的建筑语汇。同样,他在法国电力集团启动的实验项目中重新定义了核电站的美学。在住宅领域,克罗德·巴夯设计了众多住宅项目,其中包括位于昂蒂布海角、如蜘蛛般悬挂在悬崖上的布鲁克度假屋,预示了巴黎国际大学城伊朗楼及与之相似的建筑形式的诞生,两个悬空的体量及外挂楼梯极具辨识性。在凡尔赛,德鲁士住宅(当时的甲方仍然居住其中)以倾斜的立方体的雕塑形象展现在大众眼前。

  巴黎建筑设计与文化遗产城于2010年举办了自1956年以来第一个大型的巴夯作品专题展览。展览由让·努维尔策划,在夏悠宫组织了的大型面对面活动,有模型、建成或构想的方案,以及挂满整个展墙的绘画。实际上,尽管克罗德·巴夯的建成作品已经成为了历史,但他的绘画创作自1960年以来从未间断。他每日都在绘画,毫不松懈,用铅笔或用笔刷。导演布里吉特·高尔南在2012年拍摄的电影《巴夯先生》中证实了这一点,电影难能可贵地见证了这位当代建筑大师至今依然敏捷的思维和双手。

  弗朗西斯·兰伯特

  建筑评论家

  Five authors being key players of the experimental process

  For the past two decades, China has experienced an unprecedented urban explosion and has transformedinto an immense laboratory at the level of the megalopolis as well as that of fragments of the city. Iconshave flourished in this flow of new urban matter: for example in Beijing, Paul Andreu‘s Opera, Herzog &De Meuron’s collaboration with Ai Wei Wei resulting in the Olympic Stadium, Rem Koolhaas‘ CCTV headoffice…And the Universal Exposition of ’10 in Shanghai, on the “Better City, Better Life” theme, pushedthe “Icon” theme to its paroxysm, as is the rule for this kind of ephemeral manifestation.

  In a context of exceptional growth, architects, urbanists and landscapers from Europe have contributedto this metropolitan mutation through their reflexions and realisations. It was logical that, in the contextof globalisation, big agencies and powerful architecture firms should intervene in the fabric of the city.

  Since then, Wang Shu, whose History Museum in Ningbo has opened a completely new way, has wonthe Pritzker prize in 2012. The first Chinese architect to receive what has always been considered as theNobel prize for architecture, Wang Shu is a friend of France.

  In this year of celebration of the 50th anniversary of China-France relations, this monograph on a sampleof the French architectural scene celebrates the talent of five leaders of the architecture current that DianaCheng has been following since the 90s, with the A3 association. As all samples, it is partial, but it remainsa testimony of the vitality of architectural creation in France. Critical standpoints, singular writings, theseare five authors with a different approach in the debate on complexity in the contemporary city.

  The youngest, Didier Faustino, situates himself at the crossing of art and architecture. This idiosyncraticpositioning, fully assumed, leads him to experiment on different scales. Sometimes on a very small scale,

  as in the case of the installations he imagines. In other cases, he works on defining a new relationshipbetween body and space. For the Vienna biennal in 2000, responding to the invitation of CommissionerGeneral Massimiliano Fuksas on the theme “less esthetics, more ethics”, Didier Faustino displayed “Bodyin Transit”, a minimal space presented as a reflexion on the mobility of illegals. “Stairway to Heaven”in Lisbon, a reflexion on the stairways of grand ensembles, the “1m2 House”, a small tower erected onParis‘ new tramway course, and his hybrid apartment presented at the first Beijing Biennial all confirm hisposture towards experimenting on limits. It was therefore natural for him to be called upon for the designof experimental houses: that of artist Fabrice Hyber in France, with walls conceived to open up, erasinginside-outside limits, as well as the “Solo Houses” project in Spain, developed in the South of Barcelona.

  The idea, there, is to “offer a living experience different from nature”. Didier Faustino intervenes then tocreate a symbiotic relationship with the landscape, siding with architects including Sou Fujimoto fromJapan, or the Chilians Pezo von Ellrichshausen.

  Odile Deck and her associate Beno?t Cornette (who passed in 1998) were very quick in attaining aninternational dimension, with the head office of BPO in the periphery of Rennes, in the beginning ofthe 90s. They received the Lion d’Or at the Venice Architecture Biennial of 1996, thus cementingthe recognition of these “emerging architects” under the influence of the high-tech trend, then veryfashionable in England as in the emblematic Lloyd‘s of London by Richard Rogers.

  This will distinguish them from the “néomoderne” trend, dominant in those times in the France of lateXXth century. But it is their “Hypertension” installation presented at the art center Le Magasin in Grenoblein 1993 that will become their manifesto. This creation, later making first page of the 2003 monographedited by Electa, defined a line which was kept well after Beno?t Cornette had gone. Odile Decq, whoalso developed projects in design, confirmed her taste for spatial experimentation without reneging on asensuality of matter in a chromatic register defined at the very start: red and black. The Macro in Rome, acontemporary art museum opened at the same time as Zaha Hadid’s Maxxi, and offering an unexpectedpublic space as a fifth fa?ade, at the end of the itinerary through the museum (as in the Frac of Rennes)a fractured block in relation to “L‘alignement du XXe siècle”, a work by artist Aurélie Nemous, makes itthe demonstration of very different urban situations. Very removed from a museum-like approach, thequestion of mobility was at the heart of the ferry terminal project in the new harbour of Tanger. OdileDeck’s project inscribes itself there in the organic architecture register, a style she had not explored untilthen. This explains the ensemble of above ground buildings, issuing from the tracing of flows.

  Frederic Borel is an architect whose confident writing singularizes him without limiting him to onestyle. Trained at Portzamparc School, he has distanced himself from his mentor and developed his ownvocabulary. Very early on, he confirmed his preference for experimenting on sculpture-buildings, offeringdiversity to the Parisian landscape be it in schools or in housing projects. It is indeed in Haussmann‘s citythat he imagined urban scenarios laid upon small lots. He sculpts as much architecture as empty space,integrating the public space in the heart of his projects. The sculptural and urban dimensions cannotbe dissociated. From Oberkampf street (mailmen lodgings in the XIth district) to the whole of the socialhousings complex in a sensitive district of Rouen, designed 20 years later, Frédéric Borel contrives topersonalize the city, to create link, to make it more likeable. And when he builds other social housings inthe North of France, in Béthune, he builds them as a “Social Castle”, not by demagogy but in his concernfor context, thereby linking his project to the factories of the region known as “Castles of the industry”.

  Another factory is found in his work in Paris, where Frédéric Borel wrote the scenario of the recycling ofthe relic of the capital’s industrial past to install the Val de Seine Architecture School on the riverbank.In that operation, the reconversion of the factory doubles with a very dense extension, itself serving as ametaphor for the city.

  As for Jean Nouvel, he trained with Claude Parent, who taught him the sense for struggle, which Nouvelpushed to the limit, creating a crisis in the program. His radicalism expresses itself in manifestos such as“Nemausus”, an experimental operation on social lodgings realized in N?mes at the end of the 80s, anopportunity for him to start waging war against the norms that stifle architecture. He has since extolledthat “a beautiful lodging is a large lodging”. Since then he has won the Pritzker Prize in 2008 for hislifework marked by major buildings (of which a great many are dedicated to culture) such as the Institutdu Monde Arabe in Paris, with its facade in a contemporary moucharabieh that imprinted a new estheticto the Jussieu campus, or such as the Cartier Foundation in Paris, icon of transparency with its workon glass leafage including the famous Chateaubriand cedar. Other examples include Lucerne‘s culturalcentre in Switzerland and its extra-thin overflowing roof, and Barcelona’s Agbar Tower with its pixelizedtriple skin, the Catalan capital‘s new icon after the Sagrada Familia. As he waits for the realization of theNamoc, the Museum of Chinese Art in Beijing for which he won the tender in 2010, Jean Nouvel buildsboth the Abu Dhabi Louvre, a lakeside medina sheltered by an immense cupola through which light filters, and the National Museum of Qatar in Doha, designed for its part as a sand rose. He says that he “likesto adapt the eternal themes of architecture by diverting and reinterpreting them”. In Paris, he conceivedthe Philarmonie, the missing element in the Cité de la Musique ensemble, which gives on the Parc dela Villette. For this equipment at the limit of the peripheral boulevard ring, Jean Nouvel has imagined abuilding integrating ramps connected to the public space, a project he dedicated to Claude Parent.

  Powerful and engaged, Claude Parent’s work seeks less for heroism of form than for the critical posturein an approach towards experimenting with space. The main idea is to trigger the body‘s movement.

  That is where the “Oblique Function”, theorized and developed with Paul Virilio, came from. Even as hisaccomplices on the international scene are the likes of Wolf Prix, Frank Gehry or Thom Mayne, manyyoung architects see him as a spiritual father. He incarnates freedom, resistance. The church of Saint-Bernadette of Banlay in Nevers, a monolith of crude concrete that overturns the image of the bunkertowards pacific ends, remains the icon of Parent’s radicalism. The mall in Sens, a concrete bar plungedinto the ground, remains as the greatest oblique built by Parent, contributing to defining a vocabulary forcommerce architecture at the time of the development of the consumption society.

  He would also contribute to the conception of the esthetic for nuclear power plants under an experimentalprogram launched by EDF. As for housing, Claude Parent designed many residences, such as the Blochouse in Cap d‘Antibes, a spider house hanging onto the rock, prefiguration of sorts of the House ofIran at the Cité Internationale Universitaire of Paris, student accommodation recognizable by its twosuspended blocks and its sculpture-stairs at the border of the peripheral ring. In Versailles, the Druschhouse (still inhabited by its original clients) presents itself as a sculpture with its oblique cube.

  The exhibition that the Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine devoted to his work in 2010 in Pariswas the first great monograph ever done on his work since 1956. It was directed by Jean Nouvel, whoorganized at the Palais de Chaillot a face to face between model structures, the matter of projectscompleted or considered, and the presentation of drawings along an extensive wall. Indeed, even thoughhis built work is now behind him, his graphic work continues since the 60s. Tirelessly, he draws everyday with pencil, or brush. The movie directed by Brigitte Cornand in 2012, “Monsieur Parent”, offers atestimony to this. It is a beautiful account of the mind and the hand, both still very agile, of a master ofcontemporary architecture.

  Francis Rambert

  architecture critique

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