法国创意建筑师

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 12:42

  2014年,在法国和中国建立外交关系五十年后,将法国建筑师在中国设计的建筑作品收录成册是很简单的事情。无论是Arte-夏邦杰设计事务所设计的上海大剧院,还是保罗·安德鲁设计的浦东机场或北京国家大剧院,法国建筑师的名字已频频出现在当代中国的建筑及城市规划领域。然而,在这期特刊中,我们想向大家呈现的是法国建筑的另一面。

  建筑学是公认的功能性艺术,它使建筑能够承受寒冷和大风、隔绝炎炎热浪并抵御地震。中国已经证明建筑学在这方面的能力,同时也在风格、技术和效率方面不断探索和完善。西方建筑带来了创新的概念。在创造者看来,他的每一个作品都是独一无二的。尽管如此,所有的创造活动都是在师承关系的基础上进行的革命。每一个艺术家都是儿子,他应该“杀死”自己的父亲才能完成自己的作品。

  我们正是想通过五位当代法国建筑师来阐明这种革命,他们中的每一个人都在其创作探索中做出了重要且独特的贡献。为了寻找这些独特性并展现其价值,我于1992年创办并主持A3协会,即建筑艺术协会(ArchitectureArtAssociation)。我们在众多的、与A3进行合作的建筑师中选定了这五位建筑师。

  我们介绍的第一位建筑师是克罗德·巴夯。克罗德·巴夯生于1923年,师从勒·柯布西耶,并于1956年创办了自己的事务所。1964年,他与保罗·维希留共同建造了讷韦尔的圣伯纳黛特教堂,二十世纪的圣地之一。当时,虽然二战后的重建工作尚未完成,但国家已从战时物资匮乏的状态中解放出来。密斯·凡德罗已在纽约建成西格拉姆大厦,而勒·柯布西耶也已建成朗香教堂!克罗德·巴夯并不满足于从这些大师作品中汲取灵感,他试图打破建筑的边界。他与不同领域的人共同工作:哲学家保罗·维希留,画家米歇尔·卡拉德以及雕刻家莫里斯·利普斯。“建筑原则”团体就是这样诞生的。克罗德·巴夯抓住一切机会挣脱垂直性和水平性的桎梏,他推广“功能斜面”理论并终身为之奋斗,而这一理论也最终成为他的个人标志。住宅、教堂、商业中心甚至核电厂都能成为他创作的突破口。克罗德·巴夯的建成作品不多,也少有公共建筑项目委托,因为作品的革新性被接受并非易事。然而,他的每一个建筑作品都推进了当代建筑的发展历程。

  克罗德·巴夯有一位著名的弟子:让·努维尔。后者生于1945年,拥有一切天赋。他有明星般的迷人外表,充满诱惑力,同时他也是一位异常雄辩的演说家。而这些都只不过是他内在惊人创造力的自然流露。让他为公众所熟知的作品是巴黎阿拉伯世界学院(于1981年赢得比赛)。在这个作品中,他用令人目眩的技巧驾驭现代语言将阿拉伯建筑的特征转译出来,成功地将阿拉伯的传统、巴黎的历史积淀和高科技三者完美结合。正是在这个项目中,让·努维尔发展了他对于光线和建筑之间关系的研究。自那以后,让·努维尔将他的工作扩展到世界各地的大型工程上,但他从来不重复设计同样的建筑,因为在他看来,每一座建筑都是与它的环境、文脉传统和功能一一对应的,同时综合了其他艺术家、历史学家、哲学家等的贡献。

  我们介绍的第三位建筑师可以说是彻底颠覆的标志。建筑原是一门由男性主导的艺术,直到二十世纪女性才开始跻身于这一领域。欧蒂娜·戴克,出生于五十年代中期,是一位建筑师、女性、朋克。她刻意保持着自己具有挑衅和警告意味的妆容:很明显,她绝不会按常理出牌。但在这一外表下,隐藏着一位既坚定又具人文关怀的艺术家。欧蒂娜·戴克不仅是一位创作者,更是一位领导者,她不断挖掘那些与她一同工作的建筑师、工程师、技术员和工匠的潜力。最初在布列塔尼,她于1900年通过雷恩的西部人民银行总部而声名鹊起,在那里她很早就将环保的原则赋予实践,将使用轻质、通透玻璃的当代建筑风格与自然空气调节的技术革新相结合以减少能源消耗。在此以后,她的项目扩展至世界各地:从法国的高架桥到罗马的MACRO当代艺术博物馆,从巴黎歌剧院的餐厅(她巧妙地将当代建筑的室内元素植入卡尼尔建造的历史杰作中)到正在建设中的南京直立猿人化石大遗址博物馆。同时,她也是一位知识的传递者--以“融合”为理念在里昂创办自己的建筑学校。

  与之相反,弗雷德里克·博雷尔刚满五十岁,却表现得像一个乖巧的男孩。但请不要被他如长跑运动员一般平静的外表所误导。

  他那燃烧的目光透露出其火一般的性格。弗雷德里克·博雷尔是诗人、画家、雕塑家,也是一位建筑师,他一直都与自己所处的环境保持对话状态。正如人们常说的那样,中国美食艺术的精髓并非是借由特殊的食材形成极致的美味,而是用最寻常的素材做出超乎寻常的菜肴。这正是弗雷德里克·博雷尔的艺术所充分发展的方面。让他建造一栋巴黎小楼,一间小学,一个托儿所,您就会得到一件珍宝:运用简单的材料体现出强大的诗意。这也不妨碍他在大型建筑上取得成功,例如巴黎十三区的建筑学院。作家圣埃克苏佩里会说,弗雷德里克·博雷尔是建筑小王子。

  于是现在应该给迪埃·福斯蒂诺起个建筑精灵的外号了。天使或魔鬼?他同时是这两者。迪埃·福斯蒂诺是建筑的“坏孩子”,尚未满五十岁,是关于身体和空间的传统理念的摧毁者。从未有人在实验建筑的实践中超越他。无论作品是巨大还是微小,他总能呈现同样精湛的技艺和令人折服的艺术。在他设计的终极庇护所“梦想屋”中,由自然元素本身提供庇护,惯常的空间坐标(高低、左右)都被取消了。迪埃·福斯蒂诺的建成作品很少,但他关于身体和空间的教育和研究工作启发了许多人。

  五位杰出的建筑师,不同的年代,不同的灵感,不同的创造力,在艺术、科技和人文的交汇处,成为当代法国建筑的象征。

  钱单黛娜

  A3建筑艺术协会主席

  钱单黛娜,曾在欧洲和中国学习建筑学,1992年获得法国建筑设计师文凭。她创建了A3建筑艺术协会,作为协会主席,在法国和世界范围内推广建筑设计及艺术创作。

  她在巴黎、伦敦、墨西哥、北京、香港和柏林,构思、组织并资助了大量展览及交流活动。作为一位编者,她分别于1996年、1999年、2002年出版了《中国建筑:从传统到现代》、《法国:在99年的99个建筑》、《法国城市建筑项目》等书籍。作为建筑师,她于2008年在北京设计建造了自住院宅,空间开放连续、将现代主义、传统氛围与生态环境结合在一起。她获得了法国文化部授予的“法国文学艺术骑士勋章”。

  中文校对:阴倩雯/英文翻译:钱单黛娜

  French Creative Architects

  In 2014, fifty years after the diplomatic relations between France and China were established, it is notdifficult to catalog the architectural buildings built by French Architects in China. Whether it is the ShanghaiOpera by Arte Charpentier, or the Pudong Airport in Shanghai nor the National Grand Theatre in Beijingbuilt by Paul Andreu, Contemporary China counts numerous French contributions in Architecture andUrbanism. However in this special issue we wanted to present another aspect of French Architecture.

  It is indisputable that Architecture is a functional art and that it enables the realization of buildingscapable of withstanding the cold and the wind, insulating extreme heat and resisting earthquakes. Chinahas already demonstrated that it is capable of so doing, of inventing a style, a method, an efficiency thathas been perfected over time. Western architecture has brought the concept of creativity. Each work of artis unique to its own creator. Even though, each creation comes from a Master, it must also derive from arebellion. All artists are “sons” but to achieve their own identity they must disown their “father”.

  It is this kind of outrageous behavior that we wanted to illustrate amongst our five contemporaryarchitects, chosen on the basis that each and everyone of them has brought an original and importantcontribution in the research of their work. In 1992 I established an Association named A3 Architecture ArtAssociation which objective was to initiate projects to promote the value of Creative Architecture. We haveidentified our five architects for this book amongst the many which A3 worked with.

  The first architect we present is Claude Parent born in 1923, a student of Le Corbusier who opened hisown studio in 1956. With Paul Virilio, he created the Church of St Bernadette de Nevers, a sanctuaryof the 20th Century, in 1964. It was a period in history where the reconstruction after World War II wasnot yet finished but when the country was already relieved from the privations caused by war. Mies vander Rohe had built the Seagram building in New York and Le Corbusier built the Church of Ronchamp!

  Claude Parent was not inspired by these masters but sought to break the frontiers of Architecture. Heworked with the philosopher architect Paul Virilio, the painter Michel Carrade and the sculptor MoriceLipsi. They gave birth to the movement “Architecture Principe”. Claude Parent seized all opportunitiesto break free of the dictatorial constraints of Verticality and Horizontality, he promoted the theory ofthe Oblique function that he defended all his life and that has become his personal trademark. Houses,churches, commercial centers, even nuclear plants have been the breaking point of his work. ClaudeParent has not built much. He has not had many public building projects, because one had to considerthe revolutionary aspect of his work. However, each one of his buildings is an important step towards thehistory of contemporary architecture.

  Claude Parent has a very famous disciple: Jean Nouvel born in 1945, blessed with all the attributes,movie star looks, a dangerous seducer and an exceptionally eloquent speaker. These are only exteriormanifestations of an effervescent creative interior. He became famous among the general public for thedesign of The Arab Institute in Paris, built in 1981. He dazzles with his skillful interpretation of Arabarchitecture into modern language, achieving a harmonious trilogy between Arab tradition, the historicalheart of Paris and high technology. With IMA (Institute du Monde Arabe) Jean Nouvel has developedhis research into the relationship between light and Architecture. Since then Jean Nouvel has spreadimportant projects all over the world, but he never creates the same work twice as for him each buildingmust be unique in its environmental context, its tradition and its vocation is to combine with other artists,historians, philosophers…

  The third architect that we present could be the symbol of total rebellion. Architecture was essentially amale dominated art and it is only in the 20th Century that women have imposed themselves amidst thisprofession. Odile Decq, born in the 50s, is an architect, woman and punk. The care in which she maintainsher looks is both provocative and a warning…for sure, do not expect her to do like others. But behindthis fa?ade, there is an artist with both perseverance and human respect. She is not only a creator, buta conductor, trying to extract the maximum from fellow architects, engineers, technicians and artisansworking with her. Originally from Brittany, she first became famous in 1990 with the BPO Bank in Rennes,very early on she explored ecological principles, combining contemporary architecture using glass for it‘slightness, its transparency and the innovative technology of natural air conditioning to minimize energyconsumption. After which, her scope of projects and geographical applications spread worldwide. Froma Viaduct in France to the Macro (Museum Contemporary Art in Rome) to the Paris Opera Restaurant,where she skillfully inserted a contemporary architectural interior within the historical masterpiece builtby Garnier, and to the Homo Erectus Museum in Nanjing, under construction. She is also a transmitter ofknowledge with her New School of Architecture“ Confluence” in Lyon.

  In contrast Frederic Borel, who just turned fifty, appears a well mannered good boy. But you must notbe misled by his physical calm of long distance runner. His burning eyes reveal a temperament of fire. Apoet, designer, sculptor as well as an architect, Frederic Borel maintains a permanent dialogue with hisenvironment. It is sometimes said that the supreme Art of Chinese cooking is not to achieve excellencewith exceptional ingredients, but to cook excellent dishes with ordinary ingredients. It is here that the Artof Frederic Borel flourishes. Give him a small Parisian building to construct, a primary school, a kindergarden and you will get a jewel in return, in which the simplicity of materials will result in poetic force. Hecan also succeed with big projects like the School of Architecture in the 13th district in Paris. The writerSaint-Exupery would have named Frederic Borel, the Little Prince of Architecture.

  By contrast, Didier Faustino should be nicknamed the Mephisto of Architecture. Angel or Demon? Heis both. Architecture’s ‘enfant terrible’, Didier Faustino who has not yet reached 50, is a destructor oftraditional ideas of body and space. Never before has the experimental expression of architecture beenbetter applied than to him. From big to small, he applies the same virtuosity and the same art of surprise.

  His project the Dream House is the ultimate shelter where protection is provided by natural elementsthemselves and where normal spatial references (top and bottom, right and left) are abolished. DidierFaustino has constructed few buildings but his research and teaching on body and space is a greatinspiration for many.

  Five exceptional architects, of different generations, inspirations and creativities to symbolizeFrenchContemporary Architecture, at the crossroad of Art, Technology and Mankind.

  Diana Chan Chieng

  President of A3 Architecture Art Association

  Diana Chan Chieng studied Architecture in Europe and China. In 1992 obtained her DPLG in France. She then created A3: Architecture Art Associationand as the President, promotes Architecture and the Arts in France and Internationally. She conceives organizes and funds exhibitions and conferencesin Paris, London, Mexico, Beijing, Hong-Kong and Berlin. As an editor has published Architectures de Chine: du traditionnel au Contemporain in 1996,France: 99 architectures en 99 in1999, and Projets Urbains en France in 2002. As an Architect In 2008 she constructed a courtyard house in Beijing,

  associating, Modernism, Tradition and Ecology. She is awarded the “Ordre des Arts et Lettres” by the French Ministry of Culture.

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English translator: Diana Chan Chiang

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