法国与中国1954-2014以建筑为联结的纽带

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 12:42

  1964-1989合作的前奏

  在过去几十年间,中法在建筑领域的交流与合作愈发密切。马克斯·魁宁,时任法国建筑学院建筑学主任、后任该院院长,经常提到1965年他与在巴黎参加国际建筑师协会的中国建筑师代表团的会面。

  中国于上世纪七十年代末开始实施建筑改革后,建筑设计从索然无味中解脱出来,变得更具文化性、专业性与学术性。

  1981年中国建筑领域首度开放,这一年中国建筑学会在时任会长杨廷宝教授的领导下,与阿卡汗建筑奖基金会合作,于10月18日至30日组织了第一次国际活动--乡村建筑研讨会1,该会议将中国几代建筑师及其合作者汇集在了北京。

  在研讨会之际,特别是在由东至西的建筑之旅中,从北京到西安、再到乌鲁木齐、吐鲁番和喀什,我们相互尊重并结成了深厚的友谊,特别是与北京的吴良镛教授、南京的齐康教授、上海同济大学的罗小未教授,以及北京建筑设计院的刘开济以及来自埃及的哈桑·法赛和来自印度的巴克里斯纳·多西。

  1981年,我们在北京遇到菲利浦·约那丹,他在八十年代初就读于清华大学,跟随吴良镛教授进行什刹海历史街区的研究工作。

  1983年他的研究成果发表在巴黎《建筑通讯》北京建筑专刊。几年之后,齐欣来到日后成为巴黎贝尔维尔建筑学院的第8建筑教学组,在贝尔纳·于艾的指导下完成了关于北京的论文。

  与此同时,法国建筑研究院迎来了娄淑玉,他是中国建筑技术发展中心的工程师,来法研究保障性住房建设体系。再之后是齐婉,在第6建筑教学组即今天的巴黎拉维莱特建筑学院学习,与我们一起研究上海的居住情况2。也正是在这一时期,华揽洪回到法国并在《建筑通讯》上发表了《1950-1979中国的城市规划和建筑》3,向我们讲述了他的奇遇,同时出版著作《重建中国--城市规划三十年(1949-1979)》4。我们高兴地了解到《建筑创作》杂志5为他做过一期专刊,回溯他在法国和中国的职业生涯。

  在这些信息的传递者中,单黛娜扮演了重要的历史性角色。她起初在英国研究建筑,之后来到法国。自1978年起她在清华大学师从于吴良镛教授。此后她开始构建从一个国家通向另一个国家的桥梁,在创造国际交流机会的同时也发表著作、组织会议与展览,并取得了突出的成就。时值中法两国建立外交关系五十周年庆典之际,同样也是她提供了编撰这期法国建筑专刊的灵感。

  1984年由法国建筑研究院组织并举办了两个重要的中法专题研讨会,一次与北京城市规划局合作,对巴黎和北京两个大都市进行比较;另一次则在同年秋天于中国首都举办,其主题为居住建筑。正是在这次会议之后,法国建筑师们开始与上海市政府合作,并在接下来的十年中首次在中国显示其设计才能。

  1994-2000开放

  开放始于上海,在决定实施浦东扩展计划后,中国政府邀请外国建筑师参加新项目的国际竞赛。因此,Arte-夏邦杰设计事务所在浦东展览中心(未实施)设计竞赛中取得最初的成功后,于1994年5月又获得了上海大剧院设计竞赛的桂冠。这一作品很快便成了为法国建筑师开辟道路的标志,使他们得以在上海获得了其它大型文化设施的设计项目,并扩展到北京,重庆,济南,苏州,太原……

  法国建筑师同样也在公共领域有所表现。实际上,上海大剧院建成后与人民广场旁边的楼宇并立,并没有形成统一的公共空间,我们对此感到遗憾。而我们在浦东中环广场的项目则整合了浦东新区政府、上海科技馆与世纪公园。这是中国第一个现代广场项目,包括两个重要的大型公共空间。我们希望世纪大道成为城区的林荫大道。地面上,在道路交口设置景观空间取代高架快速路,将公共空间整合为大型的带状花园。我们也应邀改造了南京路最繁忙的路段,在这里人流与车流总数高达200万。

  2000年初,同样是在城市规划领域,我们展开了第一个生态区合作项目,在上海西部的铁路地界上规划容纳10万居民的万里生态小区,作为浦东南汇新城的一部分。

  2000年以来关系稳固化与多元化

  在交通运输领域,两国之间已经建立起牢固的联系以及密切的合作关系。无论是飞机还是火车,巴黎机场或火车站等专业机构同样能够产生建筑合作:浦东机场、北京火车站、上海火车站、武汉火车站等。法国所参与的项目十分多样化,除了车站以外,还包括歌剧院、音乐厅和博物馆等文化设施。

  法国建筑师设计的其它大型项目包括大学,医院以及武汉市民之家等。在文化遗产保护与修复等专业领域法国与中国的专家以及学术单位开展了技术合作,合作者包括北京的清华大学,天津、西安、武汉的多所大学,以及上海的同济大学。在这十年中,两国在人才培养领域的合作也更加稳固,通过“总统计划”,如今已有150名中国建筑师及规划师来到法国进行培训。作为他们所在机构中优秀的高水平人才,他们同时也是加强、扩大中法机构进行合作的媒介。也正因如此,中国如今已是法国建筑师业务规模最大的国家。

  2014年之后

  即便不是预言者,我们仍然可以清楚的看到两个趋势,一方面,在中国的法国建筑师越来越多,另一方面,未来几年来法国参加建筑竞赛一试身手的中国建筑师将会更多。

  普利兹克建筑奖得主王澍,应邀在卢瓦尔河畔的肖蒙设计了一座花园。弗雷德里克·爱德曼,《世界报》记者,对中国的建筑前沿进行了积极地追踪和观察,他撰写了一篇优秀的文章6,记述他在北京、重庆、云南和蒙古等地的考察。

  我们在中国获益颇多,中国已经成为建筑的实验室,我们坚信在新的发展阶段,双方的合作探索也将迈上新的台阶。

  皮埃尔·克雷蒙

  夏邦杰建筑师事务所总裁

  1.请参考《米玛》杂志1982年第3期,以这一活动为主题的专刊。

  2.《上海住房的转变》,皮埃尔·克雷蒙,弗朗索瓦兹·基德和齐婉等,巴黎,法国建筑学院-1989建筑计划,弗朗索瓦兹·基德后成为现代中国建筑观察站负责人。

  3.作为简报的副刊,1978年10月,第36期,建筑设计研究中心,巴黎美术学院,巴黎。

  4.莫尼特出版社,1981年。

  5.《建筑创作》,《华揽洪1912-2012》,第166-167期,3-4月,2013年。

  6.《中国建筑》,画廊恩里科·纳瓦拉,巴黎,2014年,第2卷。旅游与重生。

  皮埃尔·克雷蒙促成了法国建筑学会(IFA)的成立,并透过它从1980年代初期开始便积极与中国展开合作。他是建筑师也是城市规划师,从1989年起便主导Arte-夏邦杰建筑设计事务所的许多规划与建筑的大型项目,于2011年成为该事务所的董事长。

  中文翻译:李天/中文校对:阴倩雯/英文翻译:Victor Clement

  France China 1954-2014

  Ties growing stronger in architecture

  1964-1989: A BUDDING COOPERATION

  France and China have forged strong ties in the field of architecture throughout those decades ofexchanges and cooperation. Max Querrien, the then director of Architecture and future president of theFrench Institute of Architecture, has often referred to his meeting with the delegation of Chinese architectsattending the UIA Congress held in Paris in 1965.

  Architectural matters only came back into consideration in regards to construction, in cultural,professional and academic terms, once the Chinese reforms had been undertaken in the late seventies.

  1981 was the year of the architectural opening,when the association of the Chinese Architects,then presided by professor Yang Tingbao from Nanking, organized its first international event. Thisseminar on the rural architecture 1, from the 18th to the 30th of October, was in partnership withthe Foundation for the Aga Khan Prize of architecture. This gathered many generations of Chinesearchitects and their guests together in Beijing.

  This event and the ensuing trip that took us from Beijing to Xi‘an, then Urumqi, Turpan and Kashgar, fromthe east to the west, strengthened our bounds based on esteem and friendship. That was particularlytrue with professors Wu Liangyong from Beijing, Qi Kang from Nanking, Lady Luo Xiaowei from Tongji inShanghai, Liu Kaiji from the Beijing Institute of Architectural Design or also Hassan Fathy who travelledfrom Egypt, and Bakrishma Doshi, from India.

  In 1981, we met with Philippe Jonathan in Beijing who was received as a student at the TsinghuaUniversity in the early eighties. He worked there in particular with Professor Wu Liangyong, on thehistoric district of Shisha Hai. They went on to publish in Paris in 1983 an Architectural InformationBulletin dedicated to Beijing and a few years later, Qi Xin would come to the Unité Pédagogique n°8that would later become the Ecole de Paris Belleville; he would write in particular a thesis on Beijing,under the supervision of Bernard Huet.

  At the same time, we would receive Lou Shuyu at the French Institute of Architecture, an engineer atthe Chinese Centre of buildings technical development who came to study constructive system of socialhousing and later, Qi Wan, an architecture student at the Architecture School Unité Pédagogique n°6,now located at La Villette, with whom we would work in Shanghai.2It was at this time that Léon Hoa came back to France and told about his experience in an InformationBulletin3: “City planning and architecture in the People’s Republic of China 1950-1979” and when hepublished his book “Rebuilding China Thirty Years of City Planning, 1949-1979”.4 We were delightedin finding out that the AC Revue5 had just dedicated a special volume to him, retracing his career inFrance and in China.

  Through her mediation activities and as a purveyor, Diana Chan Chieng played an historic role. During heracademic years, starting in England and finishing in France, from 1978 onwards, she would be a studentat the Tsinghua University in Beijing with Professor Wu Liangyong. She would spend her life betweenvarious countries, building bridges, creating exchanges, writing publications, organizing meetings,exhibitions, instigating two exemplary achievements.

  It was also she who inspired this volume about the French architecture for the celebration of the 50-yearresumption of diplomatic relations between our two countries.

  1984 saw the organization of two Sino-French seminars organized by the French Institute of Architecture;one in Paris in June comparing the two cities of Paris and Beijing, in partnership with the Beijing Instituteof City Planning, the other on the housing architecture in the Chinese capital. This last event marked thebeginning of our cooperation with the Shanghai municipality. This was to result in major achievementsfrom French architects in China in the next decade.

  1994-2000: THE OPENING

  This started in Shanghai culminating in the decision to implement the extension project on the East bank- Pudong - the Chinese authorities invited foreign architects to participate in international contests fornew programs. This is how Arte Charpentier architects, after a first victory in the contest for the exhibitionhall in Shanghai, which was eventually abandoned, won the contest in May 1994 for the Shanghai OperaHouse. This achievement became quickly an icon for the city, paving the way for French Architects toachieve further major cultural facilities in Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing, Jinan, Suzhou, and Taiyuan.

  The French influence was also particularly apparent in the public space fields. It was regrettable that,around the place where the Shanghai Opera House had just been built, some other buildings had beenjuxtaposed without any attempt of unifying the public space architecture. Therefore, we were asked todo the opposite in Pudong, for the Central Plazza project integrating the Municipality, the Museum ofSciences and the Central Park. This project was the first modern square project realized in China.Twomajor wide public spaces projects would follow. The Century Avenue that we wanted to be an urbanboulevard, with crossroads rearranged in squares on the ground as opposed to an elevated highway,and integrating a large strip of gardens. We were asked to transform the Nanjing road into a pedestrianstreet, the busiest part of which would allow 2 million pedestrians to walk, in addition to traffic flow.

  In the early 2000s, this was also in the urban project domainthat a cooperation started with anécoquartier of 100 000 inhabitants in Wanli, on a railway right-of-way set free in the west of Shanghai,and then for the new city in Nanhui and Pudong.

  SINCE 2000, RELATIONS HAVE BECOME INSTITUTIONALIZED AND DIVERSIFIED

  In the transport field, strong and privileged institutional relations were established between our twocountries, whether it be aviation or locomotion, making it possible for specialized agencies such asAéroports de Paris or Agence des Gares, to initiate cooperation as well. This would pave the way forarchitectural achievements: the Pudong airport, Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan railway stations. These agenciesdiversified their interventions then into some railway station districts or major cultural facilities: operahouses, performance halls, and museums.

  Some other major facilities programs, such as universities, hospitals or the Citizen House in Wuhan, wouldhave been designed by French architects. In the specific fields of housing, heritage, and rehabilitation,which are known to be French competencies, a professional and academic cooperation started with thefollowing renowned universities: Tsinghua in Beijing, Tianjin, Xi‘an, Wuhan, or Tongji in Shanghai.

  This decade has also seen the implementation of a more institutional cooperation in the field of training.

  A presidential host program gave 150 architects and later town-planners the opportunity to come toFrance. Regarding high level executives holding responsible positions in their institutes, they would havebeen the vectors of reinforcement and the broadening of the cooperation with French agencies. This ishow China has become the country in which French architects are the most active.

  AFTER 2014

  Without trying to speculate, two trends clearly seem to be emerging, with an increasing number ofyoung French architects settling in in China. However we are likely to see above all, in the forthcomingyears, a growing number of Chinese architects coming to France to try their luck in participating incontests in our country.

  Wangshu was invited to create a garden in Chaumont-sur-Loire; he would later be awarded the PritzkerArchitecture Prize. Frédéric Edelmann, a journalist for Le Monde newspaper, as an attentive and passionatescrutinizer of the avant-garde evolutions in the Chinese architecture, provides us with a remarkabledocumentation on his findings6 during his trip from Beijing to Chongqing and from Mongolia to Yunnan.

  We have been learning a lot in China. China has become the construction laboratory which is convincingus that a new step is paving the way for new common experiments.

  Pierre Clément

  Président of arte charpentier architectes

  1. See the magazine Mimar, NO.3, 1982, devoted to this event.2. Transformations de l’habitat à Shanghai, Pierre Clément, Fran?oise Ged and Qi Wan… Paris, IFA-Plan Construction 1989, Fran?oiseGed who would later lead the Observatoire de la Chine contemporaine.3. Supplément au Bulletin, NO.36, october 1978, Centre d‘Etudes et de Recherches Architecturales, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris.

  4. Editions du Moniteur, in 1981.

  5. ArchiCreation, Léon Hoa 1912-2012, NO.166-167 .03+04,2013.

  6. Made by Chinese - Architecture, Gallerie Enrico Navarra, Paris, 2014, 2 vol. Voyage and Rebirth.

  Pierre Clement helped to create the French Institute of Architecture, where, in the early 1980s, he developed an active cooperation project withChina. Pierre is an architect, planner and manager for major development and architecture projects within Arte Charpentier. He was appointedChairman in 2011.

  Chinese translator: Li Tian / Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English translator: Victor Clement

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