邦雷的圣伯纳黛特教堂

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,圣伯纳黛特教堂
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:14

  邦雷的圣伯纳黛特教堂以错位的碉堡为造型意象,自1966年12月举行祝圣仪式以来,其非凡的感染力从未消减。圣伯纳黛特教堂看似有意相互排斥、却又浑然一体的造型激发了“电容效应”1,时刻警示世人那一段充斥着战争与核危机的年代。圣伯纳黛特教堂首先是个庇护所,设计了两处可用于军事庇护的空间。但同时圣伯纳黛特教堂也通过对“断裂”的实际应用给了现代性重重一击。

  我们会在街头意外地发现圣伯纳黛特教堂。克罗德·巴夯和维希留2知道这个讷韦尔北部人口稠密的地区正在进行密集的城市化,而教堂作为标志性建筑最终将被包围。为了抵制这种被他们形容为“无脊椎动物”的时代背景,他们选择用洞穴来隐喻伯纳黛特·索维罗斯(教堂的供奉者)的愿景。在此基础上,结合碉堡的悲剧意象、又通过断裂和偏移来赋予它截然不同的语义。如果说这座教堂浑然一体的外形立刻让你联想到碉堡,那么混凝土外壳的圆角及瞭望口则对应了军事语义,而对这两者进行断裂和错位的处理则拉开了建筑与战争“模型”之间的差距。

  项目图纸阐释了它的设计理念:以六边形为基础,克罗德·巴夯将建筑“切分”为两个相等的部分,进一步通过“分离”、“打断”、“移位”和“重新关联”等设计手法,在内敛的体量上“显露出错位的痕迹”。但是被分离的不仅仅是建筑体量:它从一个斜面中生长出来,并在上升的过程中不断塑造空间、解构六边形。两个沉重的体量自建筑中央的核心筒悬挑出来,形成克罗德·巴夯所谓的“裂缝”。两个钢筋混凝土外壳在垂直方向和横向上发生偏移,形成玻璃天窗;建筑内部亦通过移位来实现两侧楼梯的设计。这种形式语言进一步提高了建筑的可读性。

  水平和垂直的构件区分了神圣和非神圣空间:二层是教堂,一层是附属设施(祭台西侧是洗礼堂和两个存储处,东侧是教理室和会议室)。如果说教堂的外观传达给人们的是一种距离感,那么其内部则会给人们一种亲切感,仿佛是在邀请大家接近。坡道向不同的方向倾斜,其中一条坡道斜率为17%,其他坡道的斜率为23%,七道顶梁与存在坡度的地面平行,不连续的实木长凳和逐渐收缩的空间设计实际上旨在激发信徒们在“集会”空间中的活跃交流。通过使用自然光和人工照明设备,光无处不在。窗户由奥黛特·杜柯3设计,有的是侧墙上的开孔、有的是地面上的缝隙,将光线或多或少地从建筑顶部和底部间接地引入室内。但最主要的光源仍然是从裂缝洒下的天光。克罗德·巴夯和维希留希望营造一个“以行动取代沉思的日常空间”;人们跨过门槛、登上中央楼梯,在经历倾斜的空间体验后到达神圣领域、与其他信徒汇合。1963年在主教区的组织下,圣伯纳黛特教堂设计方案在竞赛中脱颖而出,并在项目的各个阶段得到主教维埃尔和神父布尔昆的极力维护,圣伯纳黛特教堂在第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965)期间开始修建。设计符合信徒在礼拜仪式中的行动流线,通过坡道和空间的收敛设计引导信徒的目光朝向祭坛(由雕塑家莫里斯·利普斯设计)。除了这个有六百个座位的教堂外,原建设计划中还有一栋教士住宅,但该项目由于预算原因最终被放弃)。实际上,也许这座位于教堂前11米处的建筑将打破这里的枯燥沉闷、带来一场非常特别的建筑对话。教堂于1991年被以一个法郎的象征性价格卖给该市,之后在3月20日被归为历史遗迹并在2005年被列为20世纪遗产,这座教堂始终展示着两个相关却对立的形式之间的悖论-教会和碉堡。

  1.“电容效应”在此处指看似相互排斥的双方在结合的过程中产生更强烈的效果。

  2.保罗·维希留是法国文化理论家和城市规划专家。1963他开始与建筑师克罗德·巴夯合作建立“建筑原则”(ArchitecturePrincipe),是克罗德·巴夯在这一时期的重要合伙人。

  3.奥黛特·杜柯是法国画家及建筑师。

  中文翻译:李天/中文校对:阴倩雯/英文翻译:ElieRosenberg/英文校对:克洛伊·巴夯

  CHURCH OF SAINT-BERNADETTE OF BANLAY

  Built in the likeness of a dislocated bunker, the Church of Saint-Bernadette of Banlay has retained since its consecration in December 1966,all of its expressive power. Deliberately repellent in appearance, monolithicin its overall shape, compacted in a “capacity effect”, it would mark theminds of an era still bearing the traces of war, and haunted by the threatof nuclear conflict. Saint-Bernadette is firstly a shelter. A shelter whoseshape evokes two ventricles of a heart just as much as it evokes amilitary space for survival. But Saint-Bernadette is also a blow tomodernity in its implementation of fracture.

  It is only possible to discover Saint-Bernadette frontally, turning around a corner, almost brutally, without preparation. Parent andVirilio knew that the intensive housing development in this populardistrict in the North of Nevers would eventually surround thechurch with standard buildings. In order to resist this context theydescribed as “invertebrate”, they chose the metaphor of the cave,a reference to the place where Bernadette Soubirous (to whomthe church is dedicated) had her visions. To this they added thetragic image of the bunker, an image however, they contradictthrough an ensemble of ruptures and offsets. Although itsmonolithic and almost blind shape immediately evokes thebunker, although the rounded angles of the raw concretehulls and viewing slits adopt a military language, thefracture of both masses and a dislocation emanating fromit only widens the gap with the warlike “model”.

  Drawings of the project shed light on its conception:starting from the hexagon shape, Parent “slices” thevolume into two equal parts which are then “pulledapart”, “fractured”, “displaced” and “associatedagain”, all operations aiming at “revealing the traceof the original fracture” in an embracing and unitaryvolume. But the fracture not only concerns thebuilt volume: it emerges from the terrain, whichsculpted from a slope, participates in the builtbody by lifting itself up, contributing also tothe deconstruction of the hexagon. Two heavymasses rise forming a cantilever over a centralblock which constitutes its articulation point.

  For Parent, it is a “rift”. Doubly offset both laterally and vertically, both pre-constrained reinforcedconcrete hulls lead to a void filled by a glass panel,and inside, past clear dislocations to lateral stairs. Thecontouring also fosters the general legibility of the building.

  The vertical and horizontal imprints of the formwork planksdefine sacred and non-sacred spaces: the church is on thefirst floor, whereas on the ground floor are found the annexes(week chapel, baptistery, as well as two storerooms to the West,catechism and meeting rooms to the East). Just as the outsideof the church repels, the inside, on the contrary, invites visitorsto come together. Indeed, the ramps slanted at inverted angles(one at 17%, the other one steeper at 23%), the seven cover beamsrising parallel to the ground inclines, the rhythmic disposition of solidwood benches, and the narrowing of the hulls, are all conceived toencourage a dynamic communion of parishioner in a “unifying” space.

  Light is controlled, equally provided from natural and artificial sources.

  The stained glass by Odette Ducarre, the lateral arrowslits, the openingson the floor, all indirectly illuminate with varying intensity from the sides,the top and the bottom. However, the main source of light comes from thewindow opened in the East facade, at the exact location of the fracture.Parent and Virilio wanted a “customary place where experimentationreplaces contemplation”; Crossing the threshold and climbing the centralstairs, in an oblique of void towards the sacred space, is to adhere.

  Ordered by the Bishopric in 1963, chosen following a competition,

  and vehemently defended by Bishop Vial and abbot Bourgoin during all

  the phases of the project, Saint-Bernadette was elaborated right at the time

  of the Vatican II Council (1962-1965). Following the logic of mobility inducedby the liturgy, the ramps and obliques lead the gaze to converge towards thealtar created by sculptor Morice Lipsi. Beyond the 600-seat church, the parishcomplex originally envisioned, also included a presbytery, whose constructionwas eventually abandoned for budgetary reasons. Its eleven meter high facadeacross the church would have induced a very different kind of dialogue, perhapsless arid. Sold to the City of Nevers in 1991 for a symbolic franc, then added to thelist of Historical Monuments in March 2000, named 20th Century Heritage in 2005,the church remains meaningful today in its paradoxical association of antagonisticshapes - the bunker and the church.

  Original French texts was selected from Claude Parent: L‘oeuvre construite, l’oeuvre graphique (ISBN: 9782910385613,

  Editions HYX, 2010.3)

  Chinese translator: Li Tian / Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English translator: Elie Rosenberg /

  English corrector: Chloe Parent

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