为改变生活而改变城市

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:14

  为改变生活而改变城市。在保罗·维希留的倡议下,这句境遇主义者特有的座右铭为克罗德·巴夯所认可和接受。

  建筑应该是改变的动力,恢复它应有的能力,即预知未来并通过创造应对千变万化的危机。建筑应该是解放的行为,使人从曾经局限他的环境中脱离出来、走出标准化的生活模式和备受限制的消极状态,使人怀揣对新生活的理想,摆脱现代都市一贯的束缚创造新的社会关系,使相遇变得容易,使交流变得高效。

  这正是克罗德·巴夯赋予建筑的角色,启示与挑战。在他的整个职业生涯中,他一直致力于践行这种抱负,即利用持续发展的技术摆脱过去的惯例、创建新的平衡,使人处于运动之中、使其能够随时做出反应。

  克罗德·巴夯是为挑战而生的人,他始终挑战着常规。他不是一个坚信既有事物的人,却是个有信念的人;他坚信放弃既有的道路、转而对当下和未来进行探索的必要性,建筑应该塑造将来;他的一生都在避免陷于墨守成规、复制生产和无聊的重复之中,时时向这些危机发起挑战。

  他如同运动员追寻运动的极限一般追寻着挑战的极限。

  他不带任何偏见地认知二十世纪所有流派的思想,并从中塑造他自己的规则。

  他追寻与众不同的境界,并在此过程中开辟了自己的道路。为了达到这样的境界,必须推翻那些他从未置信的惯常标准的限制。选择风险,革新的风险。摈弃过去以便产生新的事物。迎接风险。拒绝循例,寻找例外。这便是支撑起他整个生命的规则,决定了他为建筑而战时所持的态度。正是在冲突中,他形成了自己独特的风格,即在两处位置、两种联系、两个时间中不断进行空间的探索。冲突是他的建筑的核心要素。

  当涉及情感价值时,克罗德·巴夯会对冲突感到担忧;但他又认为,不存在不含冲突的建筑。反对形式上的和谐,他运用矛盾的元素创造与自然相背的混合体,通过出人意料的组合形成暴力。建筑在本质上是冲突的:与自然冲突,与地球冲突。建筑师是揭露并激发冲突的元凶。在他们的控制、宣扬和领导下,富有意义的建筑诞生了。

  对于克罗德·巴夯来说,并不存在形式上的真理,但可以对形式进行试验并从中获得经验。形式是基本的探索。草图是他生产想法的产钳;同样也是他表达闪现的灵感及乌托邦的工具,为在暗处掩藏的建筑最美好的部分留出位置。没有任何事物处于完全地计划与控制之中。无论你多么确信方案的实施效果,偶然总会发生,有时闪现出 “真理”的火花。偶然与随意是不同的。随意是缺乏共同规则的;而偶然产生于对特定元素进行意想不到的组合,偶然发生的概率是可以被估计的。

  他的选择并非由项目决定,而是他独到的视野推动了整个创造的进程并时常将之引向“不合理的边缘”。其所冒风险通常是巨大的。

  只有进入实质的建造阶段,建筑的风险才能被真正地衡量。图纸上的建筑设计与现实存在一定程度的脱节。而对这种失控进行度量则又是一桩难事。

  建筑产生于图纸和现实之间,建筑在被感知的过程中变成现实。然而,正是在图纸所不可及的间隙中、在人力可预计的范围之外,存在着意想不到的机遇,蕴藏着最为强烈的情感。“最成功、最非凡的建筑都在某些方面有所超越”。那些吸引目光的地方往往“与神秘的整合有关”。一切真实的建筑都无法脱离理智之外的阴影和神秘,它们不经召唤就径自出现在建筑中。这正是建筑之美的出处,并非安排而成的优点。摒除这样的错觉:作品因作者的意愿而存在,只能产生于理智的控制下。这一真理的缺失使他得以进行颠覆,创建新的秩序并改变组合方式。

  1966 年他和维希留创办了“建筑原则”团体,成员还包括画家米歇尔·卡拉德和雕塑家莫里斯·利普斯。

  巴夯和维希留一道写作了《能力和想象力》,描述了他们超越当下、在可预见的乌托邦世界中进行的战斗。

  他与维希留共同发展了第三种城市秩序,将倾斜的平面作为基本的几何原则。

  新的几何秩序蕴含了新的精神。倾斜是自由的象征:打破平衡使人进入运动状态,允许他渴望自由地存在、独立地行动,并给予他表达个性的机会。倾斜在功能上打破了既有的水平与垂直空间,并向社会和政治批评开放。它会成为人们摆脱束缚的因素、建筑革新的工具。倾斜理论,其原理被阐述为对不变性和静态学的抨击、对人的运动性的支持。稳定性让位于不平衡,后者成为活动的发电机。“流通空间”和“可跨越的障碍”是倾斜建筑使人类掌握自己的未来并激活人类生活的方式。在一个结构载体上同时发展动态和静态,清除了划定空间和时间的障碍物,使时间和空间得以连续。

  对于克罗德·巴夯来说,乌托邦不止是精神的境界;它被镌刻在思想史中;它同时也是必不可少的。推进“现实局限之外”的探索、挖掘未来建筑语汇的基础,都无法缺少乌托邦。克罗德·巴夯的独特之处在于他一直在尝试将乌托邦化为现实。在他的实践中,他总是表现出实验的意愿,需要让理论与现实进行对质,对质的目的不在于探讨技术的可行性,而在于测试人类整合与筹备未来的能力。

  克罗德·巴夯在他的实验中测试了倾斜的宜居性。

  对他来说,革新所带来的积极或消极的结果都是正常的,他避免陷入教条。

  与很多乌托邦不一样,倾斜功能没有过时;它比以往任何时候都更为现实,因为它与当前的土地节约问题相吻合。

  倾斜是建筑对危机的回应:它控诉了城市的危机;它控诉了社会的危机。它以几何的形式呈现出来,作为解决人类在其环境中问题的途径。

  将分离的人类与自然、人类及其社会环境重新统一在一起;使自然家庭化,使家庭自然化;重塑风景;再造地形;开辟新领土;管理人口密度:这是作为“未来的创造者”的建筑师在今天所提出的方法,他们关心如何在多变的世界中整合各种要素,以迎接和塑造生命。

  在“建筑原则”中,巴夯和维希留提出“重塑地球表面、增加开发面积”的必要性。倾斜的秩序必然“顺理成章地成为对全球性城市化问题的回应”。

  现在城市成为他伟大的乌托邦工程:重新找回社会的凝聚力与社区生活,它们受制于当前阻碍连续性、僵化相遇欲望的城市规划。地球被城市化蚕食得千疮百孔,我们别无选择地成片建造垂直建筑以应对人口增长所带来的需求。必须停止设置障碍,停止填满那些道路和设施之间的空地,停止在“密集的地面上”继续增加建筑,“之后我们定会主动在这密集的城市中辟出一条交流的通路”。他将这种新的城市发展理念视为“拯救城市”的途径。他着手描绘这个乌托邦,不可避免这样的未来,即在人类已经无法在地球上获得宜居空间时,将被迫向其它世界迁徙,月亮、火星、冥王星。

  倾斜功能是迈向土地节约的第一步。

  今天他致力于寻找一个在不同层次上进行结构组织的城市,仿佛城市由无数躺倒的摩天大楼所组成、持续延伸却没有街道,屋顶作为第五立面也得到展现,成为不间断的道路、为不同地点提供直接的联系。建造和摧毁同时进行:在地球表面建造一层可以持续航行的面层,同时削减人工地层的厚度、重新找回地平线。

  现在,图纸是他表达立场的首选工具:思考以图像为载体,不失严谨。他正在努力钻研城市。这就像从极具侵略性的密度中拯救城市的科幻故事一样,使他自由地用不同的方式表达自我。对于这些非常美丽的抽象图纸,他犹豫着是否要在其中加入“人”,以赋予它们比例尺度,将它们变成建筑设计。在艺术和建筑之间,他始终会选择建筑。现在,他犹豫;为艺术而艺术从来就不是他的事业。对他来说更重要的社会意义存在于建筑之中,促使他做出这样的选择。他抵抗;他在图纸中画出人,即使之后会被擦除。

  比阿特丽斯·司莫诺 作家

  中文校对:阴倩雯、李天 / 英文翻译:Hou Laurent / 法文与英文校对:克洛伊 · 巴夯

  Changing The City to Change Life

  Changing the city to changelife. This was the very motto of the situationiststhat Claude Parent approved and adopted under the initiative of Paul Virilio.

  Getting back to its ability to anticipate ahead and capable of creating a futurethat can deal with an ever-changing crisis situation, architecture should bethe engine for change. It should be the liberating act that could make manfeel the isolation his environment used to confine him in, take him out ofthe standardized way of life and passivity he used to be constrained to,and make him dream about a new reality, invent new social relationshipsemancipated from the habits of modern urbanism, facilitate encounters andmake communication more effective. For Claude Parent, architecture hasto bring revelations and play such a role of agent provocateur. Throughouthis whole career, he relentlessly pursued the ambition he assigned toarchitecture: creating situations that can build a new equilibrium, freedfrom past conventions, make man move and become more reactive.

  Claude Parent is a man of challenges who throws a permanentchallenge to normality. He is not a man of certainties but a man ofconvictions, who believes in the necessity to get off the beaten trackto plan and experiment the roads of the living and of the future.Architecture has to build future. His whole life was a challenge to therisk of falling into immobilism, in the reproduction of a practice and intoboredom and repetition. Setting the highest challenge like the extremequest of an athlete.

  He went through all the schools of thought of the twentieth century,without any prejudice, and made his own rules. He created his ownpath towards new horizons. In order to reach such horizons, he hadto push the limits accepted by society and the norms he was notconvinced about. Choosing risk, the risk of renewal, giving up thepast in order to make something new arise. Establishing risk as amodus operandi. Refusal of conventions. Search for exception.Hereare the rules that underpinned his whole life and dictated the attitudehe adopted during his fight for architecture. He built his identity inconflict, always looking for a place, between two positions, betweentwo links, between two times, and conflict is a central element inhis architecture. Claude Parent is afraid of conflict when it opposesaffective values. But for him, there is no architecture withoutconflict. Opposed to formal harmony, he plays with contradictoryingredients, makes unnatural alloys and establishes violence withunexpected encounters. Architecture is a source of conflict inits essence: conflict against nature, conflict against the planet.

  Architects are criminals, assassins who reveal and provokeconflict. It is their task to seize it, exalt and amplify it so as tocreate meaningful architecture.

  There is no formal truth for Claude Parent but anexperiment of the form and faith in the experienceit creates. The form is his way to adventure. Heuses drawing as a forceps to deliver his thoughts.Drawing is also the means that allows him to expresshis sudden emotions and utopias and preserves theshadowy areas where the best part of architecture lies.

  Nothing is totally planned and in control. No matterhow determined one is to measure the effects of theproposed solutions, there always remains a space fortaccident, which sometimes contains the spark of “truth”.Random and arbitrary are two different things. Arbitraryis related to the absence of common rules whereasrandom is generated by causes which probability can bemeasured and stem from the unexpected alloy of certainingredients.

  His options are not defined by a program but by hisvision that triggers the creative process and sometimesmakes him wander and takes him “to the threshold ofsomething unreasonable”. Most of the time, huge risks weretaken. It is during the construction phase that true risks areindeed measured. Architecture on paper allows one to bereckless and can step away from reality. The danger relatedto the experimentation of such excess is another matter.

  It is the space between drawing and reality thatarchitecture is built. Architecture becomes real through theway it is felt. The chance of unexpected encounter and thesource of the strongest emotion precisely lie in the emptyspaces of the drawing and in the things we humans could notplan. “The best works of architecture, the most extraordinaryones are those that have things which are out of control”.

  They are places for contemplation because they are “related tothe integration of a mystery”. There is no truthful architecturewithout shadows and mystery that defy reasoning and stemfrom the edifice by themselves, without having been summoned.

  This is where beauty comes from, not from the formal quality ofarrangements.

  Dispelling the illusion that the work of art only exists by the willof its author and can only be created through rational work. Thisabsence of unique truth allowed him to tip over, shift to a new orderand change alliances. In 1966, he created the group ArchitecturePrincipe with Virilio. Apart from himself and Virilio, the groupincluded the painter Michel Carrade and the sculptor Morice Lipsi.

  Parent wrote “Power and Imagination” with Virilio, setting theirfight in the perspective of a possible universe, in a utopia that doesnot belong to immediate logics. With him, he conceives the idea ofa third urban order in which inclined plane is the basic geometricprinciple. Creating a new geometric order that would induce a newpsychical order. The oblique is a symbol of freedom: destabilizing man to make him move, allowing him to aspireto the freedom of being, putting him in a positionto develop this independence and giving himthe opportunity to access the expression of hisindividuality. The oblique function - breaking thehorizontal and the orthogonal of establishedspaces - would open doors to social andpolitical criticism. It would become a factor ofthe emancipation of man, the tool for a renewalof architecture. The theory of the oblique and itsprinciples are an assault to fixity and static, andpromote the energetics of the walking man. Stabilitygives way to disequilibrium, which is the engine thatgenerates activity. The “inhabitable circulation”,the “surmountable obstacle” are the means that obliquearchitecture suggests in order to activate man in theperspective of taking control of his own future.

  Developing inhabitation and circulation on a uniquestructure-shelf cleaned from the obstacles that enclosespace and punctuate time, a unique continuous installationthat allows fluidity of spaces and time.

  Utopia, for Claude Parent, is not a state of mind. It isdeeply rooted in the history of ideas and it is also a necessity. Itis essential to push research “beyond the limits compatible withcurrent circumstances” in order to discover the new foundationsof the future architectural language. The originality of ClaudeParent is that he has always been trying to make utopia happen.

  In his approach, he always expressed a will of experimentationand the necessity to put theory to the test of reality, not technicalfeasibility but men‘s ability to integrate and prepare themselves forthe future. In his experiments, Claude Parent has been testing theinhabitability of the oblique.

  To him, the use of a space is the positive or negativeconsequence of innovation, a concept that prevents dogmatism.

  Contrary to lots of utopias, the oblique function has not aged; it hasnever been as relevant as it is now since it goes in the same directionas today’s concerns about more efficient land use. The oblique isan answer to the architecture crisis: it denounces the urban crisis, itdenounces the social crisis. It is the geometrical means to solve theissue of men in their environment.

  Re-weaving the unity of a world fragmented between man and nature,man and his social environment, domesticating nature, naturalizing thedomesticated, reinventing landscape, making a new topography, creatingnew territories, managing density - all these are current approachessuggested by architects who are “future inventors” and strive for integratingthe parameters of an ever-changing world so as to welcome and maintainlife. With “Architecture Principe”, Parent and Virilio evoked the necessity to“remodel the planet‘s soil in order to increase arable land”. The oblique orderimposed itself as “a natural answer to the problem of global urbanization”.

  His great project, his great utopia is now about city: finding back socialliturgy, community life which is currently hampered by the obstacles of an urbanism that neither allows continuity nor paths and scleroses any desire ofencounter. The planet is getting nibbled by galloping urbanization, devouringinfrastructures that leave a moth-eaten land where we find no option butconstructing vertical buildings that pile up the inhabitations in order to meetthe needs of a growing population. We must stop building dams, stop fillingthe empty spaces between the roads and communication infrastructures, andcreate a continuous built environment, “a compact above-ground […] in whichwe would, in a second time, freely engrave the incisions of communication”.

  He sees this new concept of urban development as the salvation ofour“urban survival”. He strived to depict this urban utopia and project it into anunavoidable future when men will have no choice but expatriation to otherworlds such as the Moon, Mars or Pluto if they cannot find any inhabitablespace on Earth.

  The oblique function was a first step in the direction of a more efficientland use.Today he commits himself to imagine a city where the urban fabricwould spread itself in different layers, as if skyscrapers were lying in aconurbation and in a continuous space without streets, were the fifth sideof the building, the roof, becomes an available space and could be usedas an uninterrupted path, thus restoring direct connections betweenspaces. Construction and destruction at the same time: on which wecould circulate without obstacles and cut through the thick layer ofbuildings to rediscover the nourishing earth below the artificial earth,to find back the horizon.

  Drawing is now the main vector to share his views: one idea anda supporting drawing, with absolute rigor. He now strives to deepenhis speech about city. These are like science-fiction images that aimat safeguarding the city from an invading density and at giving backthe freedom to express oneself differently. Very beautiful abstractdrawings that he hesitates to spoil by adding some humancharacters on them, therefore giving us a scale and bringing thedrawings back to the realm of architecture. Between art andarchitecture, he always chose architecture. Now he is hesitating;art for art has never been his approach. For him, social issuesare much stronger and deeply rooted in architecture; this iswhy he made such a choice. He is resisting: he would draw thecharacters, even if he has to remove them with his eraser.

  Béatrice Simonot writer

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen, Li Tian / English translator: Hou Laurent /

  French and English corrector: Chloe Parent

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