国际大学城伊朗楼

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,巴黎国际大学城,伊朗
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:21

  巴黎国际大学城于1968年建成,占地35公顷,共计38座建筑,为来自世界各地的学生和研究人员提供住所,伊朗楼是其中最后完成的项目。在60年代初,负责人法拉赫·迪巴赫将这个为伊朗学生设计的建筑工程委托给了克罗德·巴夯、安德烈·布鲁克和两名伊朗建筑师,默申·佛鲁迪和黑达·杰艾。以两个主要原则为基础,设计者提出了一个前卫的方案:以高强度的黑色焊接钢架(类似造船业的做法)作为承重结构,其上悬吊两个上下对位但相互分离的建筑体量。这两个体量的组织方式与安德烈·布鲁克在昂蒂布,即克罗德·巴夯刚刚完成的房屋,有着非常直接的联系。伊朗楼靠近勒·柯布西耶的两个展馆,其意义不言自明。克罗德·巴夯说:“它在我心中是一座具有宣言意义的建筑”。厚重的结构框架、分离的居住体量、两个错位的螺旋楼梯(同时脱离地面)、低调的节点设计,都带有明显的现代特征。

  建筑设计也受到用地本身的诸多限制:用地面积小要求建设高层建筑;建筑位于环城高速路边、暴露于噪声污染中,需要将西立面完全封闭;建筑邻近的德国馆规定了拟建建筑物的高度;由于地下有石灰石采石场,因而必须减少结构支撑点。因此,最后采用的支撑框架首先包括三道在六个深22米的浇筑井上建造起来的高为38.20米的金属门结构,其次为位于顶层和框架中间的两个支撑平台,螺栓将两个体块的四个板面都固定在支撑平台上,使建筑的建造过程自上而下展开。建筑中间空出的空间部分用于公寓管理,这也符合大众需求。克罗德·巴夯希望我们从“负空间”这个角度来解读这个建筑,首先理解中空和“悬挂的精神”。建筑强调各种元素间的分异:相对于在建筑高层布置的百余间学生宿舍,公共活动被安排在建筑低层;两面不透明的山墙与玻璃幕墙立面相呼应,期间穿插独立的凉廊;白色的饰面材料中含有石棉和水泥,增强了表面的反光效果,与黑色亚光表面的框架结构形成鲜明对比;同时严格正交的建筑布局与在西侧突出的标志性旋转楼梯形成对比。

  这个项目在1961年完成设计,在取得建造许可证的过程中克服了诸多困难,直到1967年才开始动工。该项目由CFEM施工,它是法国当时最大的钢结构公司之一。由于政治原因,该项目很快被伊朗政府放弃,伊朗楼于1972年由阿维森纳基金会接手,当时该基金会仅成立三年。2008年该项目在补充盘点中被纳入历史遗迹,并且由于不符合现有规范,于2007年夏季关闭,重新翻修外观并重新使用的建议引起极大争议,该项目在设计哲学中似乎就包含了几乎不可能重建的因素。__

  中文校对:阴倩雯 / 英文翻译:Frederick Ladbury, Helena Javitte / 英文校对:克洛伊·巴夯

  THE IRANIAN PAVILION AT THE CITEINTERNATIONALE UNIVERSITAIRE

  Completed in 1968, the Iranian Pavilion at the Cité Internationale Universitairein Paris was the last of 38 buildings intended to house students and researchersfrom around the world on this vast 35 hectare space. In the early 1960s, under therecommendation of Empress Farah Dibah, a project to house students from Iranis entrusted to Claude Parent, André Bloc, and two Iranian architects:

  MoshenForoughi and Heydar Ghiai. The proposal is radical, and based on two keyprinciples: a bold, visible, black macrostructure made from welded steel (asis customary in ship-building), and the stacking of two suspended blocks,separated by a void. The filiation is striking, with a pair of unalignedand cascading volumes in the house by André Bloc at Antibes, whichClaude Parent had recently completed. The Maison de l‘Iran sought toset itself apart from the two nearby pavilions by Le Corbusier. “It wasto be a manifesto-building” Claude Parent would claim. The thickstructural bracings, the separation of the living spaces, the inversionof the coils of the stairs (which are detached from the facade),

  the articulation of the voids and the unaligned lower volumes allcontribute to undermine the set formulas of modernity.

  The architectural choices are partly linked to the constrainingnature of the site: its narrowness required building upwards,and its location bordering the highway encircling Parisexposes the building to strong noise pollution, whichrequired its Western facade to be sealed. Its proximity tothe German pavilion forced the building be set back to adistance equal to its height. The the condition of the subsoil,with its voids from limestone mining, reduced thenumber of possible foundation supports. Therefore thestructural principles adopted rely on a load-bearingskeleton comprised of three metallic archways 38.20metres high, resting on six points on concrete wells22 metres deep. Subsequently, supports for fourfloors were bolted onto platforms that interconnect withthe archways half way up the building and at the roof.

  These determined the construction of the building fromthe top down. The central void, partially occupied by theapartment of the director, seems to accentuate the generalmass of the building. Claude Parent wanted his architecturebe understood as “negative spatiality”, having the observer firstnote the voids and the “mindset of suspension”. Everywhere, theproject affirms the differentiation of elements. The upper volumeis dedicated to a hundred student rooms, whereas the lowervolume is for communal spaces. The opaque nature of the sidewalls and the blank wall facing the motorway are offset by a glassmain facade, textured with individual loggias. The white compressedconcrete-asbestos panels of the facade contrast with the matte blackof the macrostructure, emphasising the strong graphic nature of thebuilding. The orthogonal rigidity of the facades plays off the invertedspirals of the monumental external stairwell on the West elevations.

  Designed in 1961, construction did not began until 1967, afterrepeated challenges to obtaining planning permits. It was undertaken byCFEM, one of France’s most important metal construction companies at thetime. Swiftly abandoned by the Iranian government for political reasons, theHouse of Iran was renamed Foundation Avicenne in 1972, only three years afterits inauguration. Added to the national registry of historic buildings in 2008, andclosed since the summer of 2007 due to non-compliance with building codes,current refurbishment plans seeking to redo the facades are causing controversy.

  The project carries in its essence a near-impossibilityof being restructured.

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English tran

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