德鲁士住宅

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:28

  德鲁士住宅是克罗德·巴夯建筑探索的里程碑,这座建筑清楚地阐释了建筑师在之前数年的建筑实践中想要表达的运动和不平衡。巴夯之前一直在实践中寻找那种他在爱因斯坦天文台1 前所体验到的强势和不安的感觉。正是对角元素的引入激活了整座建筑。

  斜置的空心立方体以一边触地,水平切面贯穿其中,这从根本上改变了传统上对水平空间的感知和使用。该项目可能受到苏勒泰住宅2(通过120°的夹角将居住空间划分为两个独立的体量)的一些启发,但巴夯却史无前例地将立方体连同屋面一起进行倾斜,形成一种不稳定的效果。住宅为工业家德鲁士·加斯东及他的妻子和三个孩子而修建,位于凡尔赛森林边约1200平方米的狭窄地块上,独立于周边其他建筑。住宅由两种建筑体量构成:其一是一个舒展、封闭的长方体盒子(0.80米),内设卧室,厨房,浴室和车库;其二是倾斜、部分通透的体量,通过大面积的出挑设计塑造两层通高的客厅大空间。这两个分离的体量之间所形成的120°钝角在平面和立面中都有所体现:平面上,两个体量之间的夹角设计为建筑北侧留出了主入口,南侧的泳池也与建筑其他部分的走向保持一致;立面上,客厅的屋顶板也倾斜了120°,体量的倾斜感和运动感自房间内开始便不断加强,并被地形所强化,进一步形成不稳定的效果。

  如果钢筋混凝土框架的几何形态表达了建筑体量的二分关系,那么其内部则体现了从各个房间到开放式阁楼(作为家庭聚会的首选)之间的连续性。否定所谓的“人体尺度”,而提供了一个尺度和开放度可变的内部空间,在当下和未来根据住户多样化的需求进行调整。

  1. 爱因斯塔天文台由著名表现主义建筑师埃里希·门德尔松(Erich Mendelsohn)设计,于1921 年建设完成。

  2. 苏勒泰住宅是克罗德·巴夯在1956-1958 年间设计完成的住宅。

  中文校对:阴倩雯 / 英文翻译:Frederick Ladbury, Helena Javitte / 英文校对:克洛伊·巴夯

  DRUSCH HOUSE

  Drusch House was a decisive step in themethodology of Claude Parent;it constituted aclear manifesto of the movement and disequilibrium the architect had been seeking,for several years,tointroduce into his houses. Parent was looking for anevolving,moving architecture,and trying to replicate thestrong,and unsettling feeling he had when contemplating the Einstein Tower by Erich Mendelsohn. By introducing the diagonal lines, he was able to make the volumes dynamic.

  A slanted empty parallelepiped resting on one of its edgesintroduces an angle that fundamentally modifies the perceptionand use of spaces traditionally governed by horizontal lines. If thelayout bears a resemblance to the Soultrait house-in its separationof the dwelling into two distinct bodies forming a 120° angle-Parentavoided a slanted roof extending all the way to the earth by incliningthe entire cube to create a yet unexplored impression of instability.Built for the industrialist Gaston Drusch,his wife and three children ona narrow plot of land of approximately 1200 square metres on the fringesof Versailles,the residence sets itself apart from its neighbors. Twoseparate structures oppose one another. The first-an oblong,heavy-set,and closed wing containing a garage,a kitchen,bedrooms,and bathrooms;the second a long-partially transparent wing on a cantilever, projects vast living spaces set over two floors. An obtuse angle of 120 degree created by thefracture between the two volumes is found in both the layout and in the elevation.

  In the layout, it coincides with the main entrance on the north side, and allowsfor a swimming pool on the south side whose lines were conceived to extendthose of the house. In the elevations, the slate roof, likewise inclined at 120degrees reinforces the tilting of the spaces. It marks the completion of a steadymovement that begins with the slanted surface bordering on the bedrooms,and amplified by the landscaping of the surrounding terrain, contributing toan impression of tilting.

  If the graphically potent concrete framework expresses the dichotomy between the spaces, the internal spaces are designed with continuity inmind - from the bedrooms to the mezzanine floor, containing the prizedfamily space of the living room. Its scale is a testimony to a choice toreject the notion of a “human scale”, advocating instead an interiorwhose size and dynamic layout opens up a world of possibilities forthe inhabitants to indulge their inclinations, current and future.

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English translator: Frederick Ladbury, Helena Javitte /English corrector: Chloe Parent

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