安德烈·布鲁克度假屋

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:28

  在他位于默东镇的住宅(1955)建成四年以后,安德烈·布鲁克请克罗德·巴夯在昂蒂布海角、一个靠近嘉鲁普灯塔的特殊地段为他设计一座度假屋。

  如果说位于默东的住宅集中了这位雕塑家所有的造型和建筑实验,那么他在这里则想要达到“工程的创新”,组织他年轻合作者依照简洁的原则--即路德维希·密斯·凡德罗(1886-1969)所提出的“少即是多”,来建造一座“鸟巢”。在寻求细分体量、流动空间及与自然环境融合的设计方案的同时,该项目也继承了19世纪以来蔚蓝海岸地区非常流行的度假胜地别墅设计的传统。

  陡峭的基地宽15米,其上小灌木和松树等植被茂密。除了地形,克罗德·巴夯和安德烈·布鲁克还不得不考虑山脊的影响、应对共有产权的限制(多次受到质疑)并适应新普罗旺斯的建筑风格。如何同时体现建筑的现代性与建筑风格的解放是这个项目的核心,正如安德烈·布鲁克在给建设部部长皮埃尔·苏德洛的一封寻求支持的信中所说:“建筑未必是可耻的。如果它是好的并与基地环境完美融合,那么它就并不必被隐藏。”又如,弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的流水别墅(1935年至1939年)对自然环境的适应更多地体现在结构上,而不是材料(木材的使用)或风格(有机形式)上。这座位于海角之上、由混凝土,钢铁和玻璃简单组合而成的住宅是克罗德·巴夯关于“支架上的房屋”的实验中最成功的案例。《今日建筑》在项目获得建造许可证之前一个月便对其进行了宣传。值得一提的是1959年10月至11月的一篇文章中刊登了第一个方案的模型照片,这个方案在被安德烈·布鲁克否决后再未留下其他任何记录。但是,这个方案的对角线和平面出挑设计(移位和溢出)展现了克罗德·巴夯掌控结构化、连续性空间的初步想法,也显示了雕塑家的野心,他尝试通过细分体量、灵活处理室内空间以及强调立面开窗等实现“空间通透性的开拓”。

  第二个方案最终得到实现,方案保留了三层结构(工作室,中间的夹层以及居住空间)与两个外凸独立螺旋楼梯之间的形式对比。这种几何与结构上的对比也可以在数年后建成的巴黎国际大学城伊朗楼中看到。

  对空间通透性的探索促使设计者选择非常低矮的家具并定制可滑动的隔板和百叶窗。由于完全没有固定的隔板,住宅可以根据使用需求在完全不透光或者充分采光的状态之间进行转换。

  CAP D‘ANTIBES

  位置图 / PLAN DE SITUATION / LOCATION MAP

  中文校对:阴倩雯 / 英文翻译:Frederick Ladbury, Helena Javitte / 英文校对:克洛伊·巴夯

  MAISON ANDRE BLOC

  In 1955, four years after building a guard’s house onhis property in Meudon, André Bloc asked Claude Parentto be the architect of his vacation house on an exceptionalsite close to the Garoupe lighthouse, at Cap d‘Antibes.

  If the house in Meudon once epitomised all the physicaland architectural experimentations of the sculptor, here Blocsought to be a “creative engineer”, and asked his youngercollaborator from the “Espace” group for a “bird’s nest” inspiredby the desire to pare down, adopting a “less is more” approachreminiscent of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969). Seekingplastic solutions to the problem of subdividing volumes, developingconnective areas, and integrating architecture into its naturalsurroundings; this project perpetuates a tradition of vacation villas, ahighly prized trend on the Cote d‘Azur since the nineteenth century.

  Fifteen meters wide, this parcel of land is highly steep and covered inthick vegetation, with small trees and maritime pines. Beyond the naturalconstraints of the site, Claude Parent and André Bloc had to adapt to theridgepole height restriction, at that time, long disputed property line, and theneo-Provencal architecture. The issue of integrating an deliberately modernarchitecture freed from stylistic conventions lay at the core of this project - asAndré Bloc explained in a letter to Pierre Sudreau, the Minister of Constructionwhose support he was seeking: “Architecture need not be ashamed. It need not hideif it is good and fits its location well.” As with Fallingwater (1935-1939) by Frank LloydWright, fitting a house in its natural environment requires thinking about its structuremore than its materials such as wood, or its style, such as organic forms.Built on the basis of a simple load-bearing structure combining concrete, iron andglass, this house is the most accomplished example of the “cells on stilts” pioneered byClaude Parent. The Architecture d’Aujourd‘hui magazine began promoting it a month beforebuilding permits were granted. Photos appear in an article from the October-December 1959issue showing a model of the first project - rejected by André Bloc, for which noother record exists. The diagonals and ruptures in the plan (gaps and protrusions)develop, however, one of the first ideas of Claude Parent about masteringstructured and sequential space. This first project followed the aspirationsof the sculptor to “explore spatial transparency”, achieved through theseparation of volumes, the dynamic nature of the intermediary spaces, andthe prominence of glazed surfaces.

  The second - less turbulent but ultimately built - project preservesthe opposition between a three-story structure composed of a workshop,a covered intermediary space, and a floor with living quarters, andexternal stairs, comprised of two independent swirls. This structuraland geometric opposition was repeated several years later in theMasion de l’Iran, at the Cité Internationale Universitaire in Paris.

  The quest for transparency made the creators opt for verylow furniture, and the ability to modulate space through slidingshutters and dividing panels. Freed from fixed partitions, the house can thus be altered on a whim, from a space with

  opaque walls to one flooded with daylight.

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen /English translator: Frederick Ladbury, Helena Javitte /English corrector: Chloe Parent

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