克罗德·巴夯 建筑师

  • 来源:建筑创作
  • 关键字:建筑创作,
  • 发布时间:2014-07-18 13:40

  1923年出生于塞纳河畔。

  在经历漫长而矛盾的学习过程(拉丁文和希腊文,高等数学与学院美术)后,他于1953年与约内尔沙因(1949-1955)联合开设了自己的事务所:完成了阿弗雷城的戈塞尔林住宅勒塞纳河畔的莫尔潘住宅以及伊西莱利诺的吉妮住宅。

  正是在这一时期,他树立了反对学院派的立场,致力于前卫的建筑研究,并与勒·柯布西耶共度了一段时光与安德烈·布鲁克的相遇促成了长达十年的合作,(昂蒂布海角的实验性住宅(1959年);巴黎大学城伊朗楼(1962年),以及一系列对建筑语汇的研究)。

  通过《今日建筑》,克罗德·巴夯有机会接触到前卫的艺术运动(如新造型主义、几何抽象主义、综合艺术、建筑雕塑),使他得以加入画家和雕塑家云集的“GropeEspace”,如费尔南·莱热、索尼娅德劳内、德尔马尔勒、皮雷、德斯旺、瓦萨勒利、曼诺尼、巴尔特琳、德斯孔斌、吉利欧里、哈同、波尔伯里等。

  他与其中一些人有着持续的联系并由此生发一系列建筑研究。

  例如与尼古拉·舒费尔完成的“城市空间-动态”(1952-1955)和“剧场转移”(1956),与唐格里在巴黎地铁站月神公园的项目月神之旅展览,与伊夫·克莱因完成的结合了空气和火的“空气建筑”(位于华沙卡德罗广场的喷泉项目)。

  他对艺术的执着将他引至剧场。他与西尔德宏合作完成德翠绿杜布洛涅森林剧院的舞台布景,及联合国科教文组织泰戈尔作品的取景装置。

  后来,他与柏里利在三场演出中进行合作,并最终在巴黎前卫艺术节上实现了“没有演员的移动影院”。

  与安德烈·布鲁克合作完成达喀尔剧院。

  他将马可波罗推荐给“偶像的光环”并与阿甘一起设计了“多个场景的剧院”。

  他还举办了无数次绘画和雕塑展览。

  同期,1954年他与尼古拉·舒费尔创作了“城市空间制动艺术”。

  于1960年与莱昂内尔米拉创作了“锥形城市”,并开始对乌托邦体系结构进行研究。

  这一时期的两个代表性建筑分别是:1963年的德鲁士住宅和1963-1964年的波尔多·佩克别墅。

  正是在这种趋势下,他主动与保罗·维希留及画家米歇尔·卡拉德取得联系。1964年,为了在创作中重拾已被遗忘或被违反的建筑原则,名为“建筑原则”的团体诞生了。除了克罗德·巴夯和保罗·维希留外,创始成员还包括画家米歇尔·卡拉德和雕塑家莫里斯·利普斯。

  “建筑原则”的理论工作最早可见于1964年的里程碑式的项目:邦雷的圣伯纳黛特教堂,偏移的碉堡(具有保罗·维希留特色)、悬挑的体量、真实的材料,以及能够实现日常功能的斜面。

  类似的日常合作也体现于其他项目与成就中,包括《建筑原则》第九期杂志和众多的专题讨论会,如卢尔的“空间规划和地区公园修建”(1966)、福克斯顿的“思想”(1966)或尼古拉斯·勒杜基金会的“探索未来”(1965)。

  在1968年五月风暴之后,保罗·维希留专注于建筑教学、写作和哲学,而克罗德·巴夯则遵循他们共同发展的建筑原则继续进行着建筑师的工作。

  1970年,克罗德·巴夯被任命为第35届威尼斯双年展的法国专员,他将倾斜的地板作为仅有的工作方案提供给艺术家们。

  对照画家、雕塑家和摄影师对倾斜的敏感性,挑战和改变其空间参照系。

  这个室内设计方案是建筑倾斜空间系列实验的一部分:勒阿弗尔(1969年),讷韦尔(1971),亚眠(1972),杜埃(1973),夏龙索恩河畔(1973)。

  无论以何种方式进行,自1964年起克罗德·巴夯开始专注于“造型的动态”和“完型的破解”。例如,1968年至1970年建成的大型商场、1974年至1984年建成的核电厂以及1984年在里昂建成的交错排列的办公楼,都体现了这两种理念:运动和断裂。

  同样,自1964年以来,箱体结构取代了框架结构(德鲁士住宅,1963)。

  他最新作品鲁瓦西杆(1995年)和利勒博讷市政厅所体现出的对完型的对抗更为激烈。形体试图在被破坏后进行重新整合、回到最初的路径;而动态的元素则更加有力地将这种外在的连续性打破。

  他的作品非常精确地拿捏了整体性的探索与各部分个性化表达之间的平衡。由此生发的自相矛盾为他提供了与他人和现代主义对话的力量。

  目前,他最新的研究以“表面”的连续性、“对立”的产生和“极限”概念的探索为着力点。

  在2005年举办的“南希,启蒙时代”展览中,他的系列绘画《突破限制》和《虚构住宅》作为“未来城市”的一部分在巴黎和南希的达迪亚斯派尔画廊展出,东京森美术馆也于2005年展出了来自现代艺术振兴基金的克罗德·巴夯档案。

  在邦雷的圣伯纳黛特教堂成为历史遗产之际,讷韦尔展出了《灰色的石头》。

  2004年洛杉矶的辛德勒住宅举办了克罗德·巴夯展览。

  建筑设计与文化遗产城举办的展览:

  2010年,《建成作品,平面作品》

  2010年,瑟路希画廊展出水墨画《城市的盾牌》

  2011年,南特画廊展出《白色荒野》

  2012年,柏林以斯帖席佩尔画廊举办画展

  2012年,乔治蓬皮杜中心展出碧姬布利塔导演的电影

  《克罗德·巴夯先生》

  2012年,巴黎伊冯·兰伯特画廊举办画展

  克罗德·巴夯

  建筑师

  法兰西艺术院院士

  中文校对:阴倩雯/英文翻译:FrederickLadbury__

  CLAUDE PARENT

  ARCHITECT

  Member of the Institute, Académie

  des Beaux-Arts

  Born in Neuilly sur Seine in 1923After his long and contradictory studies: Latin andGreek, advanced mathematics, and finally architectureat the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: he opened his practice in1953, with Ionel Schein (from 1949 to 1955) and workedon the completion of the Maison Gosselin in Avray, theMaison Morpain in La Celle sur Seine and the Maison LeJeannic in Issy les Moulineaux.

  The stand he took against academics, his commitmentto an avant-garde architecture, and his internship withLe Corbusier all date from this period.

  His meeting with André Bloc paved the way to a ten yearcollaboration - Maison Experimentale in Cap d‘Antibes1959, Maison de l’Iran in the Cité niversitaire de Paris(1962) and research of architectural language.

  Through “L‘Architecture d’Aujourd‘hui”, Claude Parentwas confronted with advanced artistic movements,such as Neoplasticism, Geometric Abstraction, ArtsSynthesis, Architecture-sculpture. This made it possiblefor him to meet and spend time with painters andsculptors in the Groupe Espace such as Fernand Léger,Sonia Delaunay, Del Marle, Pillet, Deswane, Vasarely,Mannoni, Baertling, Descombins, Gilioli, Hartung, PolBury and others.

  His ongoing relationships with some of these artists ledto new architectural thinking. This was the case withNicolas Sch?ffer for the Ville Spatio-Dynamique (1952-1955), and for the Thé?tre Tournant (1956), with Tinguelyfor the Luna-Tour project on the Luna-Park PorteMaillot exhibition park in Paris or with Yves Klein on theL’Architecture de l‘Air and the fusion of air and fire (aproject for the Fountains of Warsaw in Trocadéro, Paris).His artistic commitment brought him to the theater. Heworked with Sylvain Dhomme for the theater design andsets of “Ondine” at the Thé?tre de Verdure du Bois deBoulogne and for the theatrical set design of a play fromTagore at UNESCO.

  Later, he worked with Polieri on three performances andbrought together the Thé?tre Mobile et sans acteurs ofthe Avant-Garde festival in Paris, and with André Blocon the Dakar Theater project.

  He advised Marc’O on Le Ring des Idoles and workedwith Agam to design the Thé?tre à scènes multiples.

  He produced exhibition design of a great number ofpainting and sculpture shows.

  He developed concepts in Spatial-dynamic architecture,from 1954 with Nicolas Schffer La ville spatiodynamiqueto 1960, with Lionel Mirabaud les Villes-C.nes.

  Two houses are characteristic of this period: the Druschvilla in 1963 and the Bordeaux-Le Pecq villa in 1963-1964.

  In this context, he met Paul Virilio through the painterMichel Carrade.

  In 1964, an association was created, built around therediscovery of forgotten or transgressed architecturalprinciples, which took the name of Architecture Principe.

  In addition to Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, theassociation counted the painter Michel Carrade and thesculptor Morice Lipsi among its founding members.

  Architecture Principe theoretical works gave birthin 1964 to a true monument: the church of Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay in Nevers, in which the followingconcepts are applied: the alteration of the bunker‘sshape (Paul Virilio’s specialty) to cantilevers, maintainingunmodified state of the material, and the use of inclinedplanes.

  This daily collaboration gave birth to different projects,a few projects, the nine editions of the magazineArchitecture Principe, and the participation in manyconferences such as L‘Aménagement du territoire et dela création des Parcs Régionaux in Lurs (1966),“IDEAS” in Folkstone (1966) or also the Exploration duFutur in the Foundation Nicolas Ledoux (1965).

  Following the events of May 68, Paul Virilio devotedhimself to teaching architecture, to writing and tophilosophy. Claude Parent continued his architecturalwork on his own, with respect to the principles that theircommon reflection had developed.

  In 1970, after being appointed curator of French pavilionat the 35th Venice Biennale, Claude Parent offered acomposition of inclined floors as his single work toartists. The purpose was to confront the painters’,sculptors‘ and photographers’ sensitivities to a reverseduniverse in which spatial references were deeplytransformed and threatened.

  This program was part of a series of constructions withan oblique style of architecture, achieved for variousMaisons des Cultures: in Le Havre (1969), in Nevers(1971), in Amiens (1972), in Douai (1973) and in Chalonsur-Sa?ne (1973).

  In all cases, from 1964 onwards, Claude Parent‘sarchitecture focused on shape dynamics through, forinstance, the “monolith fracture”.

  Large supermarkets are built from 1968 to 1970: nuclearpower plants from 1974 to 1984: office buildings withsub-levels, such as the SEPTEN’s building in Lyon(1984), are all characteristics of this double heritagemovementand mass fractures. Similarly, since 1964, thework on the shell replaced on the frame-structure (VillaDrusch 1963).

  His last buildings, Roissy-P?le (1995) and the LillebonneCity Hall show a more aggressive dislocation of theglobal form that has to come back together coherentlyafter being split up; the dynamism is reinforced to thedetriment of the envelop‘s shape formal continuity.

  His work expresses a very accurate balance betweenthesearch for unity and the individualization of autonomousparts. By doing so, it offers its own contradiction fromwhich it draws its strength of communication with othersand modernity.

  At present, the on-going research focus on the continuityof “Surface”, the establishment of “Conflict” and theexploration of the “Limits” notion.

  The series of drawings Open-Limit and MaisonsImprobables were exhibited in the Darthea Speyergallery in Paris and in Nancy for the “Avenir des villes /Futurs for Cities” exhibition as part of Nancy, temps deslumières in 2005.

  The Mori Art Museum in Tokyo has also exhibited theFrac Centre’s archives from Claude Parent in 2005.

  An exhibition Le Caillou Gris in Nevers opened whenthe church Saint-Bernadette du Banlay was listed as anhistoric monumentAnother exhibition, Klein-Parent at the Schindler Housein Los Angeles in 2004Claude Parent retrospective at the Cite de l‘Architectureet du Patrimoine : Claude Parent. L’oeuvre construite /L‘oeuvre graphique, 2010

  Several exhibitions followed:

  China ink drawings “Les villes boucliers” in the Seroussigallery in 2010;

  Drawings in the Les landes blanches gallery in Nantesin 2011;

  Drawings at the “Esther Schipper” gallery in Berlinin 2012;

  Projection of the “Monsieur Parent”, a movie by BrigitteCornand at the Georges Pompidou Center in 2012;

  and, recently, an exhibition of drawings at the “YvonLambert” gallery in Paris in 2012.

  Chinese corrector: Yin Qianwen / English translator: Frederick Ladbury

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